The current approval process


1. A written request for a letter of approval must be submitted to the Climate Change Department (CCD) in both hard and soft copy.

The written request must be accompanied by the following documents:

  • Final Project Design Document (PDD): The project participant must provide a soft and a hard copy of the PDD.
  • Completed Sustainable Development Criteria Template (Download Template).
  • Environmental Impact assessment (EIA) Certificate: This is mainly to ensure the observance of proper safe guards in the planning and execution of all development projects including those already in existence that are likely to interfere with the environment. This is issued by the National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA).
  • Documentation to substantiate legal status of the Applicant.
  • Documentation regarding ODA, where applicable.

CCD may request additional information in addition to the requirements listed above.

2. After submission of the application, the CCD will review the documentation to ensure it meets all the requirements.

3. If all the requirements have been met, CCD will conduct an initial assessment of the application, including subjecting it to the sustainable development criteria.

4. A meeting of the Climate Change Policy Committee (CCPC) will then be convened to consider the application. If the application is approved by the CCPC, CCD will recommend to the Minister of Water and Environment (DNA) to issue a Letter of Approval for the CDM Project or PoA.

5. If these requirements are not met, CCD will provide a letter to the project participant noting the areas of concern. The project participant must address the comments and revise documentation, as appropriate, in order for CCD to complete the approval process.

The Ministry will aim to provide either the Letter of Approval in a CDM Project or a letter outlining necessary revisions within six (06) weeks from the date of receipt of the request for approval and submission of all supporting documentation or from the date of submission of any revisions, clarifications, whichever is later.

Outreach

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) sets an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the challenge posed by climate change. It recognizes that the climate system is a shared resource whose stability can be affected by industrial and other emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.

Under the UNFCCC, governments gather and share information on national policies and best practices, greenhouse gas emissions,; launch national strategies for addressing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to expected impacts, including the provision of financial and technological support to developing countries; cooperate in preparing for adaptation to the impacts of climate change

Article 6 of the Convention seeks to promote action at the national level to provide the education, training and public awareness needed to understand and deal with climate change. As a key element in the implementation of the Convention, the Article is relevant not only to the different sectors but also the civil society engagement.

Audiences throughout the world are increasingly exposed to climate related stories — predominantly negative and inadequately solution oriented.

The Climate Change Unit, Outreach section, headed by a Principal Climate Change Officer (UNFCCC Article 6 Focal Point) therefore is expected to and must play a key role in providing some of the answers and information that wider society expects.

The successful public awareness campaigns of CCU/MWE aim at engaging communities and individuals in the common effort needed to carry out national and international climate change policies.

The underlying aim is to support Article 6 of the Convention, which calls on governments to promote education, training and public awareness on climate change

CCU/MWE activities are undertaken in collaboration with partners to ensure coordination and the highest impact possible, and will both guide and be informed by the Communication Strategy

The focus of CCUs interventions is to:

Education training and public awareness targeting schools to ensure that today’s young people fully understand the challenges their generation is expected to face in the decades ahead

Develop strategic communications, including through mutually reinforcing messages with the UNFCCC Secretariat, to convey a sense of urgency in dealing with climate change;

Use media and outreach activities to help deliver key messages on climate change, especially those derived from CCU/MWE Climate Change publications, to the media and other target groups;

Help communicate successful adaptation and mitigation programmes to key stakeholders to promote replication of best practices and success stories using the Internet and audiovisual tools. This includes among others, promotion of networking and social outreach amongst internet savvy audiences using a variety of tools including Twitter, Facebook and Youtube, trainings for district local governments, Teachers, media and the civil society in a bid t support Public Private Partnerships.

 

CLIMATE CHANGE 2007 UGANDA NATIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION

CLIMATE CHANGE 2007 UGANDA NATIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION ii CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION iii CLIMATE CHANGE UGANDA NATIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION THE REPUBLIC OF UGANDA CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION iv CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION v TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of contents v Foreword vii Acknowledgements viii List of Acronyms ix Executive Summary xi CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 1 1.1 Genesis of NAPA 1 1.2 Multilateral Agreements 1 1.3 National Circumstances 2 1.4 Natural Resources 3 1.4.1 Climate 4 1.4.2 Forests 7 1.4.3 Wild life 8 1.4.4 Water Resources 9 1.4.5 Agriculture 10 1.5 Impact of Climate Change on Ugandaís Development 11 1.5.1 Health Sector 11 1.5.2 Water Resources 11 1.5.3 Agriculture 12 1.5.4 Wildlife, mountains and rivers 13 1.5.5 Forests 14 CHAPTER 2. METHOD OF PREPARATION OF NAPA 15 2.0 Introduction 15 2.1 Institutional Arrangements 15 2.2 Formation of Taskforces 16 2.3 Selection of Study Sites 17 2.4 Data Collection and Analysis 17 2.5 Prioritization and Ranking of Interventions 18 CHAPTER 3. VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE 21 3.0 Climate Variability 21 3.1 Vulnerability 26 3.1.1 Vulnerability of Water Resources 27 3.2.2 Vulnerability of the Agricultural sector 28 3.1.3 Vulnerability of the Health Sector 31 3.1.4 Vulnerability of the forestry sector 36 3.1.5 Vulnerabilities of the wildlife sector 36 3.1.6 Conclusion 39 CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION vi CHAPTER 4. IDENTIFIED COPING STRATEGIES 41 4.1 Introduction 41 4.2 Coping Strategies 41 4.2.1 Category A Copying Strategies 41 4.2.2 Category B Copying Strategies 44 4.3 PRA Recommendations and Interventions 45 4.3.1 Area-Specific Recommendations 45 4.3.2 Recommended Tree Products 46 CHAPTER 5. PRIORITIZED INTERVENTIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION FRAMEWORK 47 5.1 Introduction 47 5.2 Implementation Framework and institutional arrangement 50 5.2.1 Plan of Implementation 50 5.2.2 Project Profiles 51 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 67 ANNEXES 68 CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION vii Foreword The Second World Climate Conference, organized by the World Meteorological Organization and held in November 1990 in Geneva, Switzerland attracted a wide spectrum of participants, including, planners, policy makers and decision makers. This was the beginning of a lifetime relationship between climate and social scientists. The second World Climate Conference, in its Ministerial Declaration adopted on 7th November 1990, urged the Secretary General to institute a mechanism to protect the global climate system. The General Assembly responded by establishing the Inter-Governmental Negotiating Committee (INC) through its resolution 45/212 of 21st December 1990. INC negotiated and adopted the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on 9th May 1992 at the United Nations Headquarters, New York, USA. The Convention recognized the most disadvantaged and least able to respond to challenges of climate change. It urged developed country Parties to take into account the specific needs and special situations of least developed countries (LDCs) (Article 4.9 of the Convention). This group of countries contributed least to the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and yet will suffer disproportionately. The operationalisation of paragraph 9 of Article 4 has led to the birth of the National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs). NAPAs provide a quick channel of communicating urgent and immediate adaptation needs of LDCs to the Conference of the Parties (COP) of UNFCCC. While the NAPAs are for LDCs, they provide an opportunity of learning by doing for the climate change process, which may be used by other developing countries. The preparation of the Uganda NAPA was guided by the principle of participatory approach, drawing heavily on the views of the vulnerable communities and their knowledge on coping mechanisms. This approach raised the level of awareness and expectations of the rural poor vulnerable communities. Therefore effective implementation of NAPA will go a long way towards meeting the expectations of the rural poor and vulnerable communities. Meeting this expectation is a challenge not only to the LDCs, but the global community. The Government of Uganda has endorsed the Ugandan NAPA and is committed to its implementation. The well being of its people is a primary responsibility as evidenced by the Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) and other supporting programmes, such as the Plan for Modernization of Agriculture, Universal Primary Education and Primary Health Care. However, adverse effects of climate change unless taken seriously will negate progress on poverty reduction programmes.There have been increased efforts to support poverty eradication programmes and also compliance with the Millennium Development Goals. Climate change is a serious risk to poverty reduction and threatens to frustrate poverty eradication and the Millennium Development Goal programmes and undo decades of development efforts through destruction of infrastructure, property and lives. Reconstruction of destroyed infrastructure will take time and considerable efforts and divert development resources to recovery programmes. I am therefore privileged and honoured to submit to you, on behalf of the people and the government of Uganda, the National Adaptation Programmes of Action. Hon. Jessica Eriyo MINISTER OF STATE FOR ENVIRONMENT CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION viii Acknowledgements The Government of Uganda acknowledges with gratitude the financial and technical support provided by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and its implementing agency, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Special gratitude goes to Liza Leclerc of UNEP who has provided invaluable comments and guidance during the preparation of this report. The government of Uganda is also grateful to Environmental Alert which printed the initial copies of the NAPA and to Professor John B. Kaddu for proof reading the manuscript. This report is an output of invaluable efforts of many institutions, groups and individuals who contributed in various ways including meetings, workshops and discussion, without which it would not be possible to prepare this report. The contribution of these groups and individuals is greatly acknowledged and appreciated. Special thanks and appreciation go to the following: Chairs of the Taskforces: Professor John B. Kaddu, Dr. David Kabasa and Dr. Friday Agaba All Members of the Taskforces, most notably: Dr. James Epila-Otara and Mr. Didas Namanya Project Managers: Mr. Philip Gwage and Paul Isabirye Chair Project Steering Committee: Mrs Edith Kasajja Chair NAPA Team: Mr. S.A.K. Magezi Reviewers and Editor Ms Florence Luziraa, Dr. Moyini Yakobo, Mr. Samuel Otuba and Mr. Mukotani Rugyendo CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION ix List of Acronyms/Abbreviations BINP Bwindi Impenetrable National Park BP Before present Ca About CBO Community-Based Organisation CBD Convention on Biological Diversity of the United Nations CC Climate Change CCD Convention to Combat Desertification of the United Nations CCMSWA Convention on the conservation of migratory species of wild animals CDF Comprehensive Development Framework. Another World Banks initiative comparable to the PRSP CFC Chlorofluorocarbons CFRs Central Forest Reserves CO2 Carbondioxide COP Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC CSO Civil Society Organisation DA District Administration. DRC Democratic Republic of Congo FAO Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations FGDs Focus Group Discussions FRs Forest Reserves GDP Gross Domestic Product GHGs Green House Gases GEF Global Environment Facility IK Indigenous Knowledge INC Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee IPCC Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature KM2 Kilometres squared LC Local Council. LDC Least Developed Countries LEG LDC Expert Group LFRs Local Forest Reserves LGs Local Governments LMNP Lake Mburo National Park LVEMP Lake Victoria Environment Management Organisation MDGs Millennium Development Goals. MUIENR Makerere University Institute of Environment and Natural Resources. MWLE Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment MEAs Multilateral Environmental Agreements MTTI Ministry of Trade, Tourism and Industry NAPA National Adaptation Programmes of Action NEMA National Environment Management Authority NFA National Forestry Authority NGO Non-Governmental Organisation NMT Non-Motorised Transport NR Natural Resources PAs Protected Areas CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION x PEAP Poverty Eradication Action Plan PFE Permanent Forest Estate UPE Universal Primary Education PHC Primary Health Care PMA Plan for Modernisation of Agriculture PMU Project Management Unit PRA Participatory Rural Appraisal PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper PSC Project Steering Committee RMS Rwenzori Mountaineering Service TB Tuberculosis THF Tropical High Forest TORs Terms of reference TSWR Toro-Semliki Wildlife Reserve UNCED United Nationals Conference on Environment and Development UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNPs Uganda National Parks. UPE Universal Primary Education UWA Uganda Wildlife Authority WCP World Climate Programme WFP World Food Programme WHO World Health Organization. WMO World Meteorological Organization CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION xi Executive Summary Introduction Global warming, the gradual increase in the average temperature on the earth, affects every sector of development. It is a frightening reality that every country has to come to terms with, as evidenced by the highly destructive hurricanes in the USA (2005), severe droughts in Niger (2005) and the devastating floods in Mozambique (2000). Indeed global warming may be the single most serious global problem of our time. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has pointed out that human activities are altering the climate system and that global mean temperatures are projected to increase in the range of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees centigrade during the period 1990 to 2100. Among the most prominent examples of the effects of global warming, is the gradual disappearance of the tropical ice caps as illustrated in the figure below. The previous permanence of the ice caps have been cherished sources of water for the communities living on the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro and Rwenzori Mountains. The melting of ice caps has serious consequences on local social and economic development as well as local ecosystems and ecotourism. Global warming has far-reaching consequences on social and economic development and the entire global ecosystems. Indeed global warming threatens to undo many years of development efforts and frustrate poverty eradication programmes in developing countries. Although all countries, rich and poor alike, are vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, the degree of damage varies from country to country. The poor countries with the least adaptive capacity are expected to suffer most from the impacts of adverse effects of climate change. Melting of ice caps on mountains Rwenzori and Kilimanjaro CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION xii The least developed countries (LDCs) and small island developing states have been identified as the most vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change recognizes the special and particular circumstances of LDCs and therefore adopted the decision on the National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) at its seventh Conference of the Parties (COP7), held in Marrakech, Morocco. NAPAs are a quick channel of communicating urgent and immediate adaptation needs to COP. COP7 established an LDC fund to support the preparation of NAPAs and an LDC Expert Group. The Global Environmental Facility (GEF) was requested to support this process. Uganda is, therefore, responding to this decision by preparing its NAPA. Extreme mass poverty experienced in developing countries is a global problem that requires a global solution. In the Millennium Declaration, 189 nations resolved to halve extreme poverty by the year 2015. Developing countries individually or jointly have committed themselves to eradicate poverty amongst their people. Despite national and international efforts, poverty has become more widespread in many developing countries in the last decade, making poverty reduction the core challenge today. However, environmental degradation, particularly global warming, is threatening to frustrate these efforts. National Circumstances Uganda lies across the equator and occupies 241,038 square kilometres, of which open water and swamps constitute 43,941 square kilometres. This represents 18.2% of the total area. Most parts are on average height of 1,200m above sea level. The lowest altitude is 620m (within the Albert Nile) and the highest altitude (Mt. Rwenzori Peak) is 5,110m above sea level. The climate is equatorial, with moderate humid and hot climatic conditions throughout the year. It has two rain seasons in a year, which merge into one long rainy season as you move northwards from the equator. The first rain season is from March to June, while the second season is from August to November. Ugandaís population was at 24.7 million people with a high average growth rate of 3.4% (2002 Census). The rate of population growth is highest in arid areas, averaging 9.7% in Kotido and 6% in Moroto and Nakapiripirit. Thus the highest growth rates are found in the most vulnerable ecosystems. The urbanization rate is lowest in Uganda compared to other African countries. Over 80% of Ugandaís population is rural and depends on rain-fed agriculture, which is vulnerable to impacts of adverse effects of climate change. The economy of Uganda has been growing at a rate of 5-7% over the past decade. Head count poverty declined from 56% in 1992 to 35% of people living below the poverty line in 2002. However, in 2004 it rose to 38% apparently due to increased frequency of climate variability and conflicts. While Ugandaís climate offers a great potential for food production, the prolonged and frequent droughts in many parts of the country, particularly the northeast, have led to almost perpetual dependency on food aid. A typical example is in the arid areas of Karamoja where the World Food Programme (WFP) supplies virtually all the food. The Vision of Uganda is ìProsperous People, Harmonious Nation, Beautiful Countryî. These six words capture the aspirations of its people. The Vision 2025 has guided and influenced the development of the Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) and its revisions, and other government programmes such as the Plan for Modernization of Agriculture (PMA), Universal Primary Education (UPE) and Primary Health Care (PHC). The PEAP is a comprehensive planning framework, which guides the development of sectoral policies and investment plans. PEAP CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION xiii emphasizes participation of the poor in poverty eradication by facilitating them to increase their production, thereby increasing their wealth. However, in a rain-fed agricultural economy increased production by the poor can only be achieved if climate variability and climate change has been taken into account. The agricultural sector presents great opportunity for poverty eradication because it employs over 80% of the population. It is for this reason that the PMA was developed as the engine to accelerate poverty eradication. The PMA is a holistic, strategic framework for the eradication of poverty through multi-sectoral interventions, enabling the people to improve their livelihoods in a sustainable manner. National Resources Natural resources constitute the primary source of livelihood for the majority of the Ugandan population. Indeed, the economy of Uganda depends on exploiting of its natural resources and will remain so for the foreseeable future. Management of these natural resources is therefore important and critical to Ugandaís long-term development. ìThe main strength of Uganda in the environment sector is that it is richly endowed with the bounties of nature ñ good soils and biodiversity, ample vegetation cover, attractive climate and abundant water resources. In some areas, these gifts of nature still remain intact, thereby availing the opportunity to utilize them sustainablyî (Vision 2025). Climate, perhaps Ugandaís most valuable natural resource, is the most neglected. The climate of Uganda is not only a natural resource, but a key determinant of the status of other natural resources, such as water resources, forest, agriculture, ecotourism and wildlife. Uganda has diverse and rich biodiversity, which has provided both food and medicine. Unsustainable exploitation of these resources, often driven by external market forces, has resulted in serious biodiversity loss with some species being close to extinction. However, climate change which has started manifesting itself through increased frequency of extreme weather events, such as droughts, floods and landslides, is posing a serious threat to Ugandaís natural resources, social and economic development. Preparation of NAPA NAPA preparation was guided by two considerations: the need for Uganda to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the countryís development objectives as enshrined in PEAP (2004). Of particular concern were commitments addressing the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, ensuring environmental sustainability and gender equity and combating major diseases. The guidelines for preparation of NAPAs and its principles (NAPA) guided the preparation of the Ugandan NAPA. Several committees and teams representing a wide spectrum of stakeholders participated in the execution of the project activities to ensure widest participation. The participatory rural appraisal (PRA) approach was used to collect data/information from communities in selected districts. The selection of study areas, collection of data/information, analysis, interpretation and prioritisation of the adaptation activities were consultative. Although documents on climate variability and climate change-related disasters in Uganda and their impacts were limited, the literature review provided a strong and sound basis for planning of the field consultations. The technical experts screened the identified interventions using simple criteria. The final list of the prioritised interventions was checked for consistency of the criteria. The results showed consistent rating of interventions. For instance Forestry, agriculture and water resources were ranked high throughout all the three criteria. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION xiv Vulnerability Climate change will increase the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as droughts, floods, landslides and heat waves. The events of the past few years clearly illustrated the magnitude of the problem. Although rigorous and detailed vulnerability and adaptation options were not done for Uganda, the literature review analysis of empirical information and observations by the communities during the participatory rural appraisal has given interesting results. In Uganda the frequency of droughts has increased, for example seven droughts were experienced between 1991 and 2000. This is confirmed by the results of the PRA, which rated droughts as the most frequent event. An increase in intensities and frequency of heavy rains, floods, landslides in the highland areas as well as outbreaks of associated waterborne diseases with the floods was also observed and confirmed by the PRA results. Frequent droughts have resulted in lowering of the water table, leading to drying of boreholes. The cattle corridor, stretching from the northeast to the southwest is a fragile ecosystem, and depends on rainwater for human consumption and production. The prolonged and severe drought of 1999/2000 caused severe water shortage, leading to loss of animals, low production of milk, food insecurity, increased food prices and generally negative effects on the economy. Temperature rise has significant impacts on health as well as agriculture. The highlands, which were previously malaria-free, are now invaded by malaria. People in the highlands have not developed immunity for malaria and have therefore been susceptible to it. Equally, rise in temperature can lead to outbreaks of pests and emergence of new pests and diseases or to change of a crop growing area. For instance an increase of 2 degrees centigrade can have dramatic impact on coffee growing areas as depicted in the figure below. This may also apply to other crops. Climate change also impacts negatively on other key sectors and therefore on the social and economic development of Uganda. Potential impacts of temperature rise on coffee growing CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION xv Coping Strategies Climate variability and its impacts have led communities to develop coping strategies. However, frequency of events such as droughts, floods and storms was previously low and therefore coping mechanisms were not documented, developed nor popularized. Coping strategies have been passed from generation to generation through traditional and cultural practices. This practice is no longer practicable because of increased frequency and coverage areas. However, these strategies could be improved, for instance the water harvesting technology (see below) used by the communities in Masaka can be improved and up-scaled at very little effort and cost. Construction of underground water reservoir Traditional coping strategies to climate variability risks were discussed during the PRA with the communities. Communities were interviewed and the data/information was collected. Analysis of the data/information showed interesting intervention areas. The list below indicates the ranking of the identified intervention areas by the communities. 1) IK documentation and awareness creation; 2) Farm forestry; 3) Water resources; 4) Weather and climate information; 5) Policy, legislation and planning; 6) Land and soil management; 7) Disaster preparedness; 8) Alternative livelihoods; 9) Health; and 10)Infrastructure. Communities used to know their local climate relatively well and indeed relied on this knowledge for planning of their farming activities. Knowledge of local climate was augmented by indigenous knowledge such as appearances of specific bird species, sprouting of particular plants and flowers. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION xvi The communities use expert knowledge to deduce good and poor seasons and therefore adequate preparations to cope with climate variability and its adverse effects. However, increased climate variability has rendered this mechanism less effective and hence the demand for weather and climate information. This is evidenced by the communitiesí observation, ìpoor state of the climate observing stations and importance of weather and climate informationî. The areas 1), 2) and 4) could be merged to constitute an early warning system (climate and agricultural early warning system). These intervention areas formed the basis for the analysis. An analysis of the intervention areas identified by the communities, integration of national development and MDG goals and prioritising these areas gave rise to the prioritised and ranked interventions in the Table below. Prioritized interventions areas Intervention area Rank Land and land use 1 Farm forestry 2 Water resources 3 Health 4 Weather and climate information 5 IK documentation and awareness creation 6 Policy and legislation 7 Infrastructure 8 Implementation Arrangements Projects will be implemented by local institutions (local governments, NGOs and CBOs) and supervised by line institutions. The Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment, the focal institution for the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, will coordinate the implementation of the NAPA projects with line institutions. The National Climate Change Steering Committee Secretariat, under the guidance of National Climate Change Steering Committee will assist the Ministry in the coordination of the implementation of the NAPA. The National Climate Change Steering Committee is a multi-sectoral and multi-disciplinary Committee established to advice the Minister of Water, Lands and Environment on Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects and climate change policy issues. The National Climate Change Steering Committee Secretariat will also liaise with the UNFCCC Secretariat and report to the Conference of the Parties on the implementation of the NAPA. Project profiles Project profiles have been developed based on the prioritized and ranked intervention strategies. The project profiles are not area specific. The selection of project area will be based on findings of the PRA. For instance priority should be given to: (a) community tree growing in the highland areas, which are prone to landslides, and (b) adaptation to drought in the semi-arid areas. Notwithstanding the urgent need to implement the Ugandan NAPA, there are several barriers which hinder effective implementation of the identified and prioritised interventions. Special attention needs to be given to these barriers in the design of the NAPA projects. These barriers include: CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION xvii n Inadequate understanding of climate change and its impacts, thus creating a barrier to resource allocation; n Inadequate technical capacity; n Inadequate financial resources; and n Weak institutional and coordinating mechanisms. Funding of NAPA The preparation of NAPAs has not only raised awareness but also hope and expectations. Successful and immediate implementation of the first set of NAPA projects will serve to demonstrate the need to integrate climate change issues into the development planning process at both central and local government levels. This will reduce the cost of adaptation, particularly for long term measures. The endorsement of the NAPA demonstrates the commitment of the Government of Uganda to combat adverse effects of climate change. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION xviii CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 1 Chapter 1. Introduction and Background 1.1 Genesis of NAPA The least developed countries (LDCs) and small island developing states have been identified as the most vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. This concern was addressed during the Seventh Conference of the Parties (COP7), held in Marrakech, Morocco, by adopting the National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs). NAPAs are quick channels of communicating urgent and immediate adaptation needs to COP. COP7 adopted a decision to establish an LDC fund to support the preparation and implementation of NAPAs. An LDC Expert Group was also established to assist the LDCs to prepare their NAPAs. COP requested the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) to support the process. Uganda is, therefore, responding to this decision. Climate, perhaps Ugandaís most valuable natural resource, is at the same time the most neglected. The climate of Uganda is not merely a natural resource, but a key determinant of the status of other natural resources, which should be harnessed and effectively utilized for socioeconomic development. Climate change greatly contributes to conflicts in Uganda. For example, the frequent scarcity of pasture and water resulting from droughts is a major cause of intra- and inter-district as well as inter-regional conflicts. However, the emerging phenomenon of climate change (CC) is inadequately understood in Uganda as evidenced by the lack of a policy framework. Climate change is mainly understood by the Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment (MWLE). There is a need to raise the level of awareness and build the capacity of various sectors to mainstream CC in development plans. The NAPA preparation process was guided by two considerations: the need for Uganda to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the countryís development objectives as enshrined in the Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP, 2004). Of particular concern were commitments addressing the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, ensuring environmental sustainability, gender equity and combating major diseases. This document presents background information about Uganda, the process of NAPA preparation, the findings and project profiles to enhance adaptive capacity of vulnerable communities. 1.2 Multilateral Agreements The spirit of multilateralism, enshrined in the United Nations Charter, has guided and influenced international actions on development as well as environmental protection. The charter has been the foundation of many multilateral agreements such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC), Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD) and actions on development, e.g. Agenda 21 and the Millennium Development Goals. While extreme mass poverty is experienced in developing countries, it is a global problem that requires a global solution. In the Millennium Declaration, 189 nations have resolved to halve extreme poverty by 2015. Developing countries individually or jointly have committed themselves to eradicate poverty amongst their people. Despite national and international efforts, poverty has become more widespread in many developing countries in the last decade, making its reduction the core challenge today. However, environmental degradation, particularly global warming, is threatening to frustrate these efforts. Indeed global warming is said to be the most serious global problem today. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 2 Global warming, a frightening reality has far-reaching consequences on social and economic development and the entire global ecosystems. Climate change is expected to have serious impacts on existing and potential development activities by affecting the bio-productive system on which most economic investments in Africa are based. The impacts of increased temperature and decreased rainfall will cause shifts in vegetation zones, impacting on ecosystems. These impacts will be transmitted to various sectors of the world economy, particularly developing country economies, which are dependent on agriculture, tourism, energy and agro-industries. Feeding the rapidly growing global population will remain a serious problem, particularly in developing countries. Actions to increase food production in developing countries will lead to more clearing of land for agriculture. This will result in further land degradation and increased greenhouse gas emissions, which will exacerbate global warming. 1.3 National Circumstances Uganda occupies 241,038 square kilometres, of which 43,941 square kilometers, representing 18.2% is open water and swamps. Most parts of Uganda lie at an average height of 1,200m above sea level. The minimum altitude is 620m (within the Albert Nile) and the maximum altitude (Mt. Rwenzori Peak) is 5,110m above sea level. Ugandaís population was 24.7 million people with a high average growth rate of 3.4% (2002 Census). Population growth is highest in arid areas, averaging 9.7% in Kotido and 6% in Moroto and Nakapiripirit. Thus most climate change vulnerable communities have the highest growing rates. More than 50% of the population is less than 18 years. The implication of this population structure is that sooner or later, the demand on natural resources is going to increase significantly, leading to NR degradation. Besides, over 80% of Ugandaís population is rural, depending on rainfed agriculture, which is prone to impacts of climate variability and change. The urbanization rate is lowest in Uganda compared to other African countries. Therefore the impact of climate change is likely to be felt more in Uganda than other African countries. Although the population of 24.7 million may appear low, some areas, particularly the highlands, are densely populated, thus creating a lot of pressure on land resources. This has led to land and environmental degradation. The economy of Uganda has been growing at a rate of 5-7% over the past decade. Liberalization of the market coupled with good macro-economic policies and measures accounted for the high growth rate of the economy. Industry and the service sector have grown at a fast rate of 10.5% and 7.5% respectively (Table 1.1). Head count poverty fell from 56% in 1992 to 35% of people living below the poverty line in 2002. However, in 2004 it increased to 38% apparently due to climate variability and conflicts. If this trend continues, Uganda may not meet its MDG targets. Table 1.1: Growth rates of selected sectors (Adopted from PEAP 2004) Sector Growth Rate in % Employment in % Comments Industry 10.5 8 Impressive growth rate Service 7.5 23 Impressive growth rate Agriculture 3.8 69 Slow growth rate but remains an important source of employment Ugandaís climate offers a great potential for food production, but the prolonged and frequent droughts in many parts of the country have led to almost perpetual dependency on food aid. A typical example is in the arid areas of Karamoja where the World Food Programme (WFP) supplies virtually all the food. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 3 Climate change may affect men, women and the youth differently. Women have a key role of looking after the households. They spend long hours during drought in search of water and firewood depriving them of productive hours for other productive economic activities. During floods, water and sanitation-related diseases are more prevalent. The women spend more time attending to sick family members. This predisposes women to increased health risks and reduced income generation. The Vision of Uganda is ìProsperous People, Harmonious Nation, Beautiful Countryî. These six words capture the aspirations of its people. The expansion of the Vision 2025 is given in the Table 1.2. Vision 2025 has guided and influenced the development of the Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) and its revisions, and other government programmes such as the Plan for Modernization of Agriculture (PMA), Universal Primary Education (UPE) and Primary Health Care (PHC). The PEAP is a comprehensive planning framework, which guides the development of sectoral policies and investment plans. Poverty eradication will depend on economic growth; and although redistribution of wealth would reduce poverty, it would not by any means eliminate it. The poor must be involved in poverty eradication programme by supporting them to increase their production and wealth. The agricultural sector presents great opportunity for poverty eradication because it employs over 80% of the population. It is for this reason that the PMA was developed as the engine to accelerate poverty eradication. The PMA is a holistic, strategic framework for the eradication of poverty through multi-sectoral interventions, enabling the people to improve their livelihoods in a sustainable manner. The PMA also takes into account other factors such as human resources and infrastructure that may increase production. Table 1.2: Components of Ugandaís Vision 2025 Component of Vision Aspirations of the Component Prosperous People ß Technologically advanced, competitive, self-sustaining and growing economy; ß A healthy, well educated society with high quality of life; and ß Regional integration and international co-operation, with Uganda as a regional hub. Harmonious Nation ß Harmonious coexistence within a dynamic society where citizenry is responsible, accountable, hardworking and peaceful; ß Effective, participatory and democratic governance; and ß Equal opportunities, empowerment and poverty eradication among people. Beautiful Country ß Focuses on the management of the environment emphasizing sustainable use of natural resources to conserve Ugandaís beauty. 1.4 Natural Resources Natural resources constitute the primary source of livelihood for the majority of the Ugandans. Indeed, the economy of Uganda depends on exploiting of its natural resources and will remain so for the foreseeable future. Management of these natural resources is therefore important and critical to Ugandaís long-term development. ìThe main strength of Uganda in the environment sector is that it is richly endowed with the bounties of nature ñ good soils and biodiversity, ample vegetation cover, attractive climate and abundant water resources. In some areas, these gifts of nature still remain intact, thereby availing the opportunity to utilize them sustainablyî (Vision 2025). Uganda has a good climate, which has supported other natural resources such as biodiversity, water resources, fish, forests and ecotourism. Uganda has a diverse and rich biodiversity, which has provided both food and medicine. Unsustainable exploitation of these resources, frequently driven by external market forces, has resulted in serious biodiversity loss with some species being CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 4 close to extinction. However, climate change which has started manifesting itself through increased frequency of extreme weather events such as droughts, floods and landslides, is posing a serious threat to Ugandaís natural resources, social and economic development. 1.4.1 Climate Uganda experiences equatorial climate with moderate temperatures and humid conditions throughout the year. Its location across the Equator gives it two rain seasons in a year, which merge into one long rainy season as you move northwards from the Equator. The first rainy season ranges from March to June, while the second one ranges from August to November. The rainfall level ranges from 400 to 2200 mm per year. Ugandaís climate can be broadly subdivided into: i. Highland climate; ii. Savannah tropical climate, including the lake basin climate; and iii. Semi-arid climate. i) Highland climate The Highland climate has cool temperatures and moderate rainfall (mean annual rainfall of over 900mm). For instance, temperatures in Kabale can be as low as 4 degrees Centigrade. In the Rwenzori Mountains, which have a permanent ice cap, temperatures of below 0 degrees Centigrade are experienced. The beauty of this climate is reflected in its natural resources as illustrated by Fig. 1.1. ii) Savannah tropical climate The Savannah tropical climate, including the lake basin has moderate average temperatures of 28 degrees Centigrade and high mean annual rainfall of over 1200mm. The tropical rainforest is found in this climate. Swamps, found mostly in this climatic zone, provide an excellent habitat for birds; the most notable being the Crested Crane (Fig. 1.2), the national bird of Uganda (which graces the Court-of-Arms). Reclaiming of wetlands has resulted in decimation of many aquatic animals and migration of the Crested Crane. Fig. 1.1 Sipi Falls in Kapchorwa CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 5 Fig. 1.2 Wetlands in Pallisa(habitat for Crested Cranes) iii)Semi-arid climate The semi-arid climate has relatively high average temperatures, ranging from 26.3 to 29.0 degrees Centigrade in Mbarara and Moroto respectively. However, extreme temperatures of 33.3 and 35.6 degrees Centigrade have been recorded in these areas. The mean annual rainfall is relatively low, ranging from 887 mm in Moroto to 905mm in Mbarara. Animal rearing is the dominant activity in this climate. The high animal population has led to serious land degradation. Although the mean annual rainfall is relatively low, some drought-tolerant land races can still grow. The subdivision of the Ugandan climate is reflected in the distribution of natural resources such as water, forest and vegetation. The Cattle Corridor (shaded brown in Fig.1.3), which lies in the semiarid climate, is predominantly a pastoralist area although the rainfall is sufficient to support the growing of food for consumption in the area and neighbouring regions. Fig. 1.3 The Cattle Corridor CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 6 a) Rainfall In Uganda, rainfall is the most sensitive climate variable that affects social and economic activities. Fig. 1.4 shows the mean annual rainfall distribution in Uganda. The wettest districts are located within the Lake Victoria Basin, eastern and the northwestern parts of Uganda. These areas include Kalangala, Kampala, Mpigi, Mukono, Jinja, part of Masaka and Bugiri (Lake Basin), Mbale and Kapchorwa (eastern) and Arua (northwestern). It has also been observed that falls are heavier and more violent. This is consistent with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCCC) prediction that wetter areas will become wetter. The western, northern and northeastern districts are experiencing long droughts, which are becoming more frequent. The eastern region including Pallisa, Kumi, Soroti, Tororo, Busia and Bugiri receive moderate rainfall. The average long-term annual rainfall for Uganda is about 1318 mm, which is adequate to support agricultural activities. However, recent years have witnessed erratic onset and cessation of rainfall seasons. This coupled with increasing frequency of droughts has made Uganda more vulnerable to climate change. b) Temperature Uganda experiences moderate temperatures throughout the year. The mean daily temperature is 280C. Extreme temperatures as low as 4oC are experienced in Kabale, which is located in the western highlands. However, temperatures below 00C are experienced on the mountain ranges of Fig. 1.4 Mean annual rainfall Source: Department of Meteorology CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 7 Rwenzori and mount Elgon. Rwenzori has a permanent ice cap, which is vulnerable to global warming. Highest temperatures (over 300C) are experienced in Gulu, Kitgum and Moroto in the north and North Eastern part of the country. 1.4.2 Forests Forest products (timber, poles, rattan, bamboo, food, fodder, medicine, and firewood etc) and services (biodiversity habitat, moderating of micro climate, shade and wind breaks for enhancing agricultural productivity) play a very important role in the social and economic development of Uganda. Conservative estimates of the contribution of forestry to the nationís GDP is 6.1%, made up of a formal sector contribution of 1.9%, an informal sector contribution of 2.75% and nonmarketable outputs amounting to 1.45%. Forests are especially pivotal to the rural communitiesí livelihoods. For example, over 99% of Ugandaís rural people use wood or charcoal as fuel. In economic terms, the work by subsistence users of firewood and charcoal is equivalent to about 725,000 jobs. Similarly, commercial users of forest products provide work equivalent to 120,000 jobs. Moyiniís (2005) in-depth valuation of the contribution of forest goods and services to GDP has strengthened the standing of forests in the economy of Uganda. Forests play an important role in moderating climate, particularly microclimate, for example, the Congo tropical forest influences the climate of Uganda, particularly in western and northwestern Uganda. As mentioned above, these forests also have the greatest tropical biodiversity. Their protection therefore should be of great concern to all countries in this region. In addition, Uganda has also a large network of highly degraded and/or deforested (Table 3.3) Forest Reserves (FRs) that include central and local FRs managed by the National Forestry Authority (NFA) and Local Governments (LGs), respectively. A significant proportion (70%) of Ugandaís forests are privately owned and a source of employment. Today, deforestation is the main environmental issue confronting Ugandaís forests, Savannah woodlands and bush land. Deforestation is caused by a number of factors, including population increase and poor agricultural practices. The colonial administration viewed forest resources as sources of revenue and building materials; and the exploitation of the Bunyoro forests by various government departments began in 1910. Mahogany trees were felled, timber pit-sawn and with no replanting. Again this destroyed the mechanisms of protecting forests, previously instituted by the indigenous people through cultural practices. Despite efforts by post-independence governments to protect forest resources, the strong chain, which ensured sustainable use of forest resources, was broken. Deforestation is a special form of land degradation that occurs in forest ecosystems from where communities derive goods for livelihoods (food, fodder, building materials and fuel) and environmental services that enhance their agricultural production. Here the reasons that lead to land degradation are different. First, the unsustainable exploitation of forest products and encroachment on gazetted forest reserves for expanding agriculture or settlement, are at the forefront. Of the two, encroachment poses the greatest threat to forests. Statistics about deforestation vary greatly because degradation and deforestation are invariably pinned on guesswork. Available information suggests that at the start of the 20th century, both forests and woodlands covered over 50% of the land and now the coverage is about 24%. The current deforestation onslaught on the reserved forest estates is presented in Table 1.3. Local forest reserves are under high pressure. For example 33.1% of the local forests have been completely (100%) deforested compared to 6.0% in central forest reserves and 16.8% of the central forest reserves are intact compared to only 1.2% in local forest reserves. This high rate of deforestation and forest degradation suggests that if nothing is done, Uganda may lose her natural forests by the end of this century. This will be very expensive because the consequences of deforestation are many; and include: desertification, loss of biodiversity, erosion of gene pools, CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 8 increase vulnerability of local communities to climate extremes, and reduction of livelihood assets for rural communities. Table 1.3: Deforestation in central forest reserves (CFR) and local forest reserves (LFR) State of Deforestation (%) % in CFR % in LFR 100 6.0 33.1 >50 11.0 22.0 >20 15.0 13.6 <10 47.8 1.1 0 16.8 1.2 Dry conditions and prolonged droughts frequently lead to outbreaks of fire that degrade forests resulting to serious environmental consequences. Similarly, increased electricity tariffs leads to increased demand for firewood and charcoal, which in turn leads to increased deforestation, soil erosion, damage to vital watersheds, flooding and silting of rivers and lakes. Notwithstanding the unrepresentative statistics of the contribution of forests to the development of Uganda, the impacts of climate change and climate change-induced activities will directly and indirectly reduce the contribution of the sector to Ugandaís development. Reduction in forest products such as timber, poles and fuel (direct) and services such as habitat, agricultural productivity and watershed protection, will lead to reduction of the contribution of forests to the development of Uganda. Although some measures are being taken to evict encroachers, they are unlikely to achieve their full objective because of the political and social sensitivity of the issues and weak policies and institutions, including weak enforcement agencies. Examples of encroached areas include: ° The encroachment of Maramagambo Forest reserve by illegal settlements in the Kiyanga and Kikarara areas. In 1995, 500 families settled on 94 sq. km of the reserve; ° By 1990, in Mabira Forest, approximately 10,000 hectares had been slashed and burnt; ° Busoga Forest reserve lost 6,000 ha; and ° In 1990, about 3,100 ha of the then Mt Elgon Forest Reserve was converted into farmland. 1.4.3 Wildlife Uganda, with a convergence of seven major biogeographic regions, is extremely rich in biodiversity, having over 1,000 bird species (over 11% of the world total). There are at least 345 known mammal species, 165 reptile species, 43 amphibian species, 49 fish species and 4900 known species of higher plants. Ugandaís Wildlife Protected Areas include 10 National Parks, 13 Wildlife Reserves, 13 Wildlife Sanctuaries and 5 Community Wildlife Areas. These areas occupy over 25,000 sq. km. Uganda is known among other things, for being home to rare and endangered species such as the Mountain Gorilla, half of the global population being found in Ugandaís Bwindi Impenetrable and Mgahinga Gorilla National Parks. Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA) is in charge of managing the countryís network of Wildlife Protected Areas (WPAs). As with forests, the colonial administration viewed wildlife as an opportunity to generate revenue, which led to the commercialization of wildlife hunting. Initially, the European hunters sought authority from the African chiefs to hunt in their areas. However, this authorization was abused by over-exploitation of the wildlife and trade in its products. The first half of the 20th century saw increased trade in wildlife, which became a major source of revenue to the colonial administration. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 9 Between 1920 and 1924, the protectorate administration earned UK Pounds 98,048 from the sale of ivory, rhino horn and hippo teeth. Poaching and illegal wildlife trade was prevalent after animal sanctuaries, game reserves and national parks were introduced. This action by the colonialists destroyed the sustainable mechanism constituted by the indigenous people. Post-independence governments have tried to protect wildlife, which has proved very difficult because of a weak institutional framework. The decimation of wildlife through poaching has been widespread. Uganda, which used to boast of having between 40,000 and 60,000 elephants in the late 1960s, saw its elephant populations reduced to less than 1,000 at the beginning of the 1980s. At Kidepo National Park, poachers reduced the numbers of giraffe to only 3 from an estimated 400 in 1971 and 160 in 1981. However, national and international efforts to stop trade in endangered species are yielding some results. 1.4.4 Water resources Uganda has abundant water resources although its distribution is not even, particularly in the semi-arid areas of the country. Up to 15% of Ugandaís total area is covered with water, 80% of which is accounted for by Lake Victoria. In addition, Uganda has a mean annual rainfall ranging from 700mm in the drier areas to about 1500mm in the humid areas. The rainfall in good years offsets the water distribution problems particularly during the rainy season. A large proportion of the population depends on streams, which tend to dry up during droughts causing serious water stress for a large proportion of the rural communities. The scarcity of water in such areas has resulted in movements into neighbouring districts in search for pasture and water. These movements have frequently led to ethnic conflicts and disruption of production, affecting the development of these communities. The water scarcity in the dry land areas is likely to worsen with climate change. The abundant water resources, including swamps, cover a total area of 43,942 sq. km. This represents 18% of Ugandaís total surface area and provides an excellent habitant for fish. Fishery is a key sector in the Ugandan economy, as well as source of food for the population. It contributes to food security, increased household income and economic growth. It is estimated that over 200,000 people, most of who are poor men and women are directly involved in the fishing industry. This number does not include people engaged in the added value of the industry such as transport, trading and processing. Fig. 1.5 Uganda Fish export 1990 - 2002 CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 10 The fish trade grew from a humble US $1.4m in 1990 to US $87m in 2002 as illustrated in Fig. 1.5. It is now estimated that the sector contributes 2.4% to total GDP (Background to the Budget 2003). It has also been argued that this figure may be as high as 5.8%. The increased population, coupled with migration to urban centres, is putting additional stress on already overstretched physical resources and facilities such as water, land and waste disposal infrastructure. Poor urban physical planning and limited financial resources have led to the growth of slums. There is an increase in settlements, particularly by the urban poor, in marginal land areas. Waste disposal infrastructure is almost non-existent in these settlements. Heavy rains coupled with poor land use planning lead to flush floods, resulting in pollution of water sources with serious consequences for human health. Indeed, communities living in such areas are vulnerable to outbreaks of waterborne diseases. Climate change will exacerbate their vulnerability. 1.4.5 Agriculture Agriculture is the backbone of Ugandaís economy. It constitutes about 42% of GDP, over 90% of export earnings and employs over 80% of the labour force. The contribution of agriculture to total GDP has decreased from 45.7 percent in 1995/96 to 41.5 percent in 1999/00. The decline in agricultural contribution to GDP is not a sign of a diversified economy, but due to the impact of factors that influence agricultural production. The major factors that influence agricultural production include soils, climate, agricultural implements, management practices and access to markets (both domestic and international). The decline in agricultural production in 1999/2000 is partly explained by the 1999/2000 drought. Nontraditional crops such as maize, sesame and soya beans have gained value in the last ten years, which has enabled farmers to make a choice of what type of crop to grow depending on demand, thus improving their incomes. Agricultural performance fluctuates with climate variability and climate change, and is also adversely affected by rudimentary means of production, poor markets and storage facilities. In Uganda land degradation is predominantly caused by agriculture, which is the main economic activity of rural communities. Subsistence agriculture mines the soil nutrients and causes soil erosion, thus making the land unproductive in the long run. High human populations tend to degrade highland ecosystems, while animals degrade marginal lands such as the cattle corridor, semi-arid ecosystem, which stretches from Rakai in southern Uganda to Karamoja in the northeast. The rapid human population growth has led to increased demand for food, energy and other social services. This has led to the expansion of land under agriculture (shifting cultivation) resulting in loss of vegetation. No deliberate efforts have been made by the people to increase production through better agricultural practices. The backlash is degraded soils, quest to clear more bush and to encroach on forest reserves. The expansion of agriculture on previously forested steep terrains has led to soil erosion, which has resulted in the silting of rivers and lakes and the loss of water catchment areas. This mode of land degradation has seriously affected many areas in Mbale, Kapchorwa, Kisoro and Kabale. Soil erosion accounts for over 80% of the annual cost of environmental degradation, representing 4-10% of GNP and estimated at about US$ 625 million per annum. Landslides, wildfires, armed conflicts and land fragmentation also cause land degradation. Hence land degradation leads to low production of food and livestock, desertification, migration of rural folk to towns to look for employment, loss of biodiversity and erosion of gene pools in agro ecosystem. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 11 The agricultural sector also contributes to pollution through improper disposal of agricultural waste. Huge amounts of fresh, unprocessed foodstuffs (banana, cassava, potatoes, beans and fruits) are transported daily into towns and urban centres where they are processed and consumed. Processing these foodstuffs generates large quantities of agricultural wastes, which invariably are dumped in unplanned sites close to human dwellings. These dumps form mountains of fermenting refuse that produce an unpleasant smell. Severe flooding experienced in urban centres such as Kampala is a result of poor solid waste disposal and clogs the recently opened Nakivubo Channel. 1.5 Impact of climate change on Ugandaís development 1.5.1 Health sector Human capital is an important asset to families and nations. In many African societies, the size of a family is viewed as an indicator of wealth. This thinking can be extrapolated to nations. Densely populated countries provide large markets for goods and services. Indeed, the high population of China is an asset to the country, with many western companies investing there to produce for the big market. However, undeveloped human capital has very little economic value. In modern societies, large amounts of resources are invested in development of human capital because it can generate significant wealth. A country such as Japan has developed because of its highly developed and skilled human capital. The high population and growth rate of Uganda is not matched with growth in health services and wealth. Similarly, the high population puts additional stress on the natural resources and weak health infrastructure. Climate change imposes additional burden on the health services (human stress and capital) with consequences of loss of human lives, particularly the most vulnerable age groups, the young and the elderly. Over the last few decades, Uganda has experienced an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events seriously affecting the health sector. Heavy rainfall that leads to flash floods and floods has resulted in the outbreak of waterborne diseases such as diarrhea and cholera, while prolonged dry spells have resulted in outbreaks of respiratory diseases. Climate change may lead to reduction in food production with serious consequences of malnutrition, particularly in children. This will lead to impaired child development and decreased adult activity. This will in turn lead to severe reduction in economic productivity and hence negative impact on the countryís social and economic development. 1.5.2 Water resources Although Uganda has abundant water resources, its distribution is uneven. The semi-arid areas of the country experience water stress. Prolonged and severe droughts lead to low water levels in rivers, underground aquifers and reservoirs, affecting the hydrology, biodiversity and water supply. The severe drought of 2004/05 contributed to the reduction of the Lake and Nile River level with serious impacts on power generation leading to power rationing in the domestic and commercial sectors, and thus resulting in the interruption of economic activities and a decline in manufacturing outputs. The cattle corridor, a fragile ecosystem, is dependent on rainwater for human consumption and production. The rural poor depend on streams and swamps. These sources will dry up during severe droughts resulting in the diversion of resources to emergency operations. Climate change will exacerbate water scarcity problems, particularly in the semi-arid areas as well as pollution of water supplies, particularly in urban centres. The prolonged and severe drought of 1999/2000 caused severe water shortage leading to loss of animals, low production of milk, food insecurity, increased food prices and thus negatively effecting the economy. Therefore, effective utilization of weather and climate information in the management of water resources can yield substantial socio-economic benefits, particularly during drought periods and floods. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 12 Floods and droughts have negative effect on water resources. A large proportion of the rural poor does not have pit latrines. Floods may pollute sources of drinking water and lead to outbreaks of waterborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid and dysentery. The poor are the most affected by outbreaks of such diseases. 1.5.3 Agriculture The increase in human population has increased the demand for food increasing pressure on natural ecosystems. Climate change puts additional pressure on the world food supply system. The system, which has yielded an increasing food per capita over the past 4 decades has shown signs of faltering over the past decade. Ugandaís agriculture is subsistent, rain-fed and, therefore, vulnerable to climate variability and climate change. Although it is predicted that climate change will lead to increased rainfall in Uganda, its distribution during a season is critical to agricultural production. Erratic rain seasons have been observed in the past few years. Floods lead to waterlogged fields or washing away of crops. Poor people frequently settle in or close to wetlands and during floods such families are vulnerable because their source of livelihood is no longer accessible for agricultural production. Prolonged droughts can have serious impacts on agricultural production. Even long dry spells during the rainy season are sufficient to reduce agricultural production, thus seriously impacting on livelihoods of the rural communities. Poor agricultural production has direct negative effects on the: ° national economy; increases in food prices leading to an unstable macro economy and resulting into inflation, which discourages foreign investment; ° feeding, leading to frequent health breakdowns, thus affecting production; and ° incomes leading to poor health and decreased standard of living. Poor seasons and occurrences of droughts, therefore, exacerbate poverty. The impact of drought on a maize crop is indicated in Fig. 1.6. Fig. 1.6 Maize crop failure in Masaka Current temperatures and rainfall permit the cultivation of coffee in most parts of Uganda. However, an increase of 2 degrees Centigrade can have significant impact on coffee growing (Fig.1.7). Other crops like cassava and soya may be sensitive to temperature increases. Increase in temperatures may lead to emergence of new pests. There is, therefore, need to orient and widen the research focus to meet future challenges. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 13 Fig. 1.7 Potential impacts of temperature rise on coffee Source: UNEP 1.5.4 Wildlife, mountains and rivers Global warming is causing retreating of glaciers, particularly in the tropics. In East Africa the ice caps on Mt. Kilimanjaro and Rwenzori Mountains are retreating. About 82% of the 1912 ice cap on Mt Kilimanjaro has already melted. By 1990, glaciers on the Rwenzori Mountains had receded to about 40% of their 1955 recorded cover. A recent study carried out by researchers from University College London and their Ugandan partners suggests that all the glaciers in the Rwenzori Mountains could disappear within the next two decades. Fig.1.8 shows the melting of ice on Rwenzori and Kilimanjaro mountains. The melting of the ice cap on tropical mountains has a negative effect on both the water catchments and eco-tourism, as well as on the overall economy. The melting of ice caps on Rwenzori Mountains has increased the erosive power of river Semliki. This erosive power and associated siltation downstream, compounded by the intensive cultivation along the river course, has enabled Semliki to disproportionately erode the Ugandan side and literally block its original course. The result is that the course of Semliki River has shifted almost one kilometre into Uganda. There is now an on-going dispute on the actual border between the Democartic Republic of the Congo and Uganda. This is a clear example that climate change is a potential source of regional conflict and war. In addition, the associated cultural loss due to melting of the ice cap is immeasurable. Fig. 1.8 Melting of ice caps on Rwenzori Mountains and Mount Kilimanjaro Source: UNEP CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 14 The mountains provide vital water catchments for humans and wildlife; such changes could drastically affect wildlife species. The Mountain Gorilla, of which half of the worldís population is found in Uganda, is also under threat from climate change. The Rwenzoris mountains are a habitat for important endemic and restricted species that, among other factors, could be there as a result of the unique climate. Among the alpine and sub-alpine species are Giant Lobelia, Tree Senecio (plants), Rwenzori Leopard and Rwenzori Red Duiker (or Rwenzori Black-fronted Duiker (animals). The Rwenzori Red Duiker, Cephalophus rubidus, is a rare and unique duiker subspecies only found in these Mountains. It is not well studied but it inhabits alpine and sub-alpine zones at altitudes above 3000m, corresponding with colder climate. Unique species of chameleons are also found on the Mountains, including the three-horned chameleon, Chamaeleon johnstoni (Fig 1.9), whose range is reportedly shifting upward as a result of rising temperatures. The same kind of shift is reported for the Senecio tree species. Fig. 1.9 Three-horned chameleon Source: UWA Wildlife-based tourism is a central source of foreign exchange for Uganda, and in 2004 tourism was recorded for the first time after so many years as the leading foreign exchange earner for the country, bringing in over US$ 300 million. It accounted for about 64.1% of the service export receipts for the country. Any losses due to climate change and other factors would therefore be negatively affecting the social and economic development of Uganda. Therefore the loss of the ice cap on the Rwenzori Mountains has serious social and economic consequences and indeed an impact on the social development of the country. 1.5.5 Forests Forests play a very important role in the social and economic development of Uganda because of their products (timber, poles, medicine and firewood) and services (habitat for other diversity, moderating of micro climate, shade and enhancing productivity). Forests could also provide a sustainable source of power. Dry conditions and prolonged droughts create conducive conditions for spread of wild fires thus destroying forests with serious consequences. Increased population growth has also led to increased deforestation because of increased demand for food and fuel. Firewood provides 95% of Ugandaís energy needs. Increased electricity tariffs lead to increased demand for fuel wood and charcoal, leading to increased soil erosion, damage to vital watershed, flooding and silting of rivers and lakes. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 15 Chapter 2. Method of Preparation of NAPA 2.0 Introduction The guidelines for preparation of NAPAs and annotated guidelines of the LDC Expert Group (LEG) characterized the implementation of the Ugandan National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPA) project. Indeed, the principles contained in the guidelines guided the development of the screening criteria for prioritizing and ranking of identified adaptation interventions. Several committees and teams representing a wide spectrum of stakeholders participated in the execution of the project activities, to ensure ownership of the project output. The selection of study areas, collection of data/information, analysis, interpretation and prioritization of the adaptation activities were consultative. The Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) approach was used for collection of data/information from communities of selected districts. Where necessary groups were segregated by sex to ensure active participation of women. Although documents on climate variability and climate change-related disasters and their impacts was limited, the literature review undertaken by the task forces provided a strong and sound basis for the planning of field consultations. 2.1 Institutional arrangements The project was implemented by UNEP and executed by the Department of Meteorology in the Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment. The institutional arrangements took cognizance of the crosscutting nature of climate and therefore its impacts on many sectors. Key stakeholders were included in the project steering committee and National NAPA Team (NT). The diagram below shows the structure of the institutional arrangements. Executing Agency Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment Project Steering Committee Project Management Unit NAPA Team Task Forces CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 16 A Project Steering Committee (PSC), a high profile committee chaired by the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment, provided policy guidance for smooth implementation of the project. The PSC was drawn from the following institutions: ° Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries; ° Ministry of Health; ° Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development; ° Ministry of Tourism, Trade and Industry (or Wildlife Authority); ° Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment; ° Department of Disaster Preparedness; ° Ministry of Education and Sports; ° Ministry of Local Government; ° Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Affairs; ° NGOs (represented by Environmental Alert); and ° Focal Points for UNFCCC, UNCBD and UNCCD. The Project Management Unit, made of two project managers and chairs of the task forces, drawn from different disciplines, were responsible for planning of activities. This proved to be very useful because of the wide range of issues based on ecosystems and sectors. The Project Manager chaired meetings of the Project Management Unit. A broad-based NAPA Team (NT), composed of technical officers drawn from key stakeholders, and in line with the guidelines for preparation of the NAPAs, was established. The NT was responsible for executing the NAPA activities. However, during project design the large size of the NT was recognized and therefore the concept of task forces was built into the project design. The Task Forces carried out literature review, data collection and analysis but submitted their outputs at every stage to the NT to ensure active participation of the NT in the entire process. 2.2 Formation of Taskforces Resource allocation by the Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development is based on a sectoral framework. This guided the preparation of the NAPA. Key sectors driving Ugandaís economy were identified for the NAPA study. These include Agriculture, Water Resources, Health, Forestry and Wildlife. However, considering the close sectoral inter-linkages, three task forces on Agriculture and Water resources, Health, Forestry and Wildlife, with a maximum of five technical experts each, were established. The Task Forces appointed by the Permanent Secretary on the advice of the Project Manager, were responsible for literature review, data/information collection, analysis and interpretation and development of screening criteria. Members of the task forces were drawn from within the NT and outside it based on expertise requirement. The Task Forces submitted their outputs to the NT through the Project Manager. Although the task forces were based on sectors, the implementation of the activities considered the following ecosystems: ° Highland ecosystem; ° Lowland ecosystem; ° Aquatic ecosystem; ° Semi-arid ecosystem; and ° Lake Victoria Basin ecosystem. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 17 2.3 Selection of Study Sites Twelve districts were selected for the collection of data/information. The selection criterion took into account the five ecosystems and, where possible, geographical balance. The selected districts are shown in the map below. The PMU organized a planning meeting in which the 12 selected districts participated. The primary purpose of the meeting was to: ° Establish a link with the districts; ° Brief district technical officers; ° Plan the field activities; and ° Identify persons to be interviewed (knowledge of occurrences of extreme weather and climate events and experiences on coping mechanisms). The established contact persons, referred to as district NAPA focal points, and the PMU identified the counties (lower level administrative units) to be included in the data/information collection. The counties were selected on the basis of their vulnerability to adverse impacts of climate changerelated disasters and represented one or more of the selected ecosystems. Fig. 2.1 NAPA Study area (selected districts) 2.4 Data collection and analysis Literature review for secondary data/information The taskforces reviewed relevant literature on climate change, related disasters, impacts and adaptation strategies in the respective sectors. They also critically analysed national development strategies, sectoral policies and programmes in order to assess Ugandaís adaptive capacity to various climate change-related vulnerabilities, including floods, droughts and temperature increase. This analysis formed a basis for the planning of the field data/information collection. Wakiso CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 18 Surveys and participatory rural appraisals Taskforces developed interview schedules with lead questions to address gaps identified in a) above. Interviews were conducted in selected sub-counties on selected respondents (including elderly women and men, opinion leaders, NGOs and CBOs operating in the study areas). These persons were believed to be depositories of knowledge on occurrences of disasters and coping mechanism. Focused group discussions (FGDs) were organized for a wider audience including the youth to enrich and check consistency of the surveys. This information was also enriched with data/information compiled from meetings with the district political leaders and technical officers. Analysis and consultations The data/information (qualitative) collected from the field was subjected to quality control. Tables, summarizing the collected data/information, were produced for further discussions with districts in workshops. The objective of this workshop was to validate the collected data/information and to seek inputs from districts, which did not participate in the field data/information collection. The PMU developed criteria, which were discussed and used at the workshop to screen identified activities. After the regional workshop, the improved report was subjected to further consultations through national technical, policy and legislatorsí workshops. 2.5 Prioritization and Ranking of Interventions There are several approaches to prioritization and ranking of activities. This could include costbenefit analysis, which would require multivariable data sets such as scientific, economic and social data. Such an approach also requires substantial amount of resources and time and therefore could not be used to analyse the identified interventions. However, reasonable and acceptable results can be obtained through simple qualitative and parametric analysis of the collected data/information. This approach has a strong advantage in that it is participatory. Therefore Uganda took this approach for the analysis, prioritization and ranking of identified interventions. A preliminary analysis of the collected data/information revealed that the participants gave preference (respondents expressed as %) to ten intervention areas: ° Indigenous knowledge documentation and awareness creation (20%) ° Farm forestry (18%) ° Water resources (16%) ° Weather and climate information (11%) ° Policy and legislation (11%) ° Land and land use (9%) ° Disaster preparedness (7%) ° Alternative livelihoods (4%) ° Health (2%), and ° Infrastructure (2%) This simple and empirical rating could be improved; for instance, health is rated low (2%) whereas it plays and important part in coping with impacts of adverse effects of climate change. Three tiers were developed for prioritizing and ranking of the identified interventions. These were validated by the regional workshop participants and used to prioritize the identified interventions. The tiers are described briefly below. a) First tier criteria (national level) This tier considers consistency, relevance and importance of an identified intervention area to the national development priorities and takes into account the following elements: CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 19 ° Development priorities (Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); ° Environment concerns, including multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs); and ° Equity and gender issues, taking into consideration disadvantaged groups. The first tier is used to establish the relevance of an intervention area. The total scores are used to weight identified key intervention activities to enable determination of the overall ranking. The third tier is then applied to the first 10 key intervention activities to determine urgency and immediacy of the activities. Project profiles are developed for the first nine key interventions. b) Second tier criteria (community/ecosystem level) The second tier focuses on community/sectoral level and the following elements were identified: ° Enhancing resilience to impacts of climate change; ° Multiple benefits; ° Replication; ° Sustainability; ° Cost-effectiveness; and ° Cultural acceptance. The following scores were adopted for the first and second tiers: Description Value Irrelevant 0 Low 1 Medium 2 High 3 Very high 4 c) Third tier criteria (urgency and immediacy) This tier focuses on urgency and immediacy of an identified and ranked intervention. The elements and scores below were adopted: Elements ° Urgency ° Magnitude (coverage and severity/intensity) and ° Immediacy. Scores Description Value Low 1 Medium 2 High 3 Very high 4 The third tier was applied to the first 17 key intervention activities (section 5.1) to determine urgency and immediacy of the activities. The total scores are used to select the first set of interventions for immediate implementation. Project profiles are developed for the selected interventions. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 20 CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 21 Chapter 3. Vulnerability to Climate Change 3.0 Climate Variability Climate has varied in the past and is expected to continue to do so in the future. However, climate change will increase climate variability resulting in frequent and intense extreme weather and climate events such as droughts, floods, landslides and heat waves. The events of the past few years have clearly demonstrated the increased frequency and intensity and also the magnitude of the problem (climate change). Uganda experienced seven droughts in a period of ten years (1991 to 2000) as shown in Fig.3.1. a) Rainfall variability Rainfall seasons have become more variable as depicted by the analysis of the cumulative average ten-day totals and cumulative ten-day totals (Figs 3.2 to 3.5). Although the western, central and northern parts of Uganda experienced good rainfall seasons the eastern region experienced drought (Fig. 3.2) in 1997. The country experienced above normal rainfall in 1998 (El Nino year), as depicted in Fig. 3.3, resulting in floods. The floods had serious negative impacts on several sectors, particularly the health (Fig. 3.9) and transport sectors. The flooding of 1998 was followed by severe drought in western region (Fig. 3.4) with Mbarara district being the most affected. The rest of the country had good seasons (Fig. 3.4 b to Fig. 3.4.d). In 2000Uganda again experienced wide spread drought. The drought was more severe in eastern and northern regions with Arua district being the most affected (Fig. 3.5d). However, the western region experienced good seasons. The analysis of the rainfall (Fig. 3.2 to 3.5) clearly indicates that not all parts of the country are affected by droughts at any given time. Therefore overall impact of climate variability and climate change can significantly be mitigated through provision of climate information and promoting its utilization so as to take advantage of good seasons in some parts of the country. These figures show inter-annual variations (across) and inter-regional variations (vertically). Fig. 3.1 Occurrence of droughts in Uganda Source: Department of meteorology CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 22 Fig. 3.2 a Western Region Fig. 3.3 a Western Region Fig. 3.2 b Central Region Fig. 3.3 b Central Region Increased frequency, intensity and widespread climate variability and climate change pose serious threat to food security and social and economic development. However, despite the eminent threat the analysis of the seasonal rainfall variability indicates that impacts of climate variability and climate change can be significantly reduced through wide use of weather and climate information. Development, production and dissemination of weather and climate information, including promotion of its utilization at various levels is of particular importance. The rural communities, the most vulnerable group, must be accorded high priority. It is therefore necessary to strengthen the capacity of the Department of Meteorology to enable it provide efficient, timely and reliable weather and climate information. The year-to-year variation of rainfall over different zones is shown in Table 3.1. The table shows the distribution of very wet, wet, dry and very dry years by region between 1943 and 1999. The records show increasing variability in most regions of Uganda other than the central region. This analysis of rainfall variability does not show any significant trends. On the other hand there is clear evidence of an increased frequency of droughts in recent years as shown by Fig. 3.1. Whereas there are still higher chances of normal rainfall, particularly in Central and South West, the probability of dry conditions is more than wet conditions in all the regions (Table 3.2). This implies higher probability of crop failure. This is an interesting result. It is consistent with increasing frequency of droughts in Uganda as shown in Fig. 3.1. This requires further investigation to ascertain possibility of a trend in dry conditions. The probability of very dry season is generally low in all the regions. The probability of very wet seasons is higher in Central and Eastern. This is supported by observations and confirmed by the results of the PRA (Table 3.3, 50% of respondents (numbers 2,3, 6 and 7) indicate increased observed heavy falls. The frequency of landslides in eastern Uganda has also increased. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 23 Fig. 3.2 c Eastern Region Fig. 3.3 c Eastern Region Fig. 3.2 d Northern Region Fig. 3.3 d Northern Region Fig. 3.4 a Western Region Fig. 3.5 a Western Region CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 24 Fig. 3.4 c Eastern Region Fig. 3.5 c Eastern Region Fig. 3.4 b Central Region Fig. 3.5 b Central Region Fig. 3.4 d Northern Region Fig. 3.5 d Northern Region CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 25 Table 3.1: Regional dry and wet years between 1943 and 1999 Source: State of the Environment Report 2000/01 Years 1943 1946 1949 1951 1952 1953 1954 1957 1961 1963 1965 1967 1972 1973 1974 1975 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1991 1992 1993 1994 1997 1998 1999 Summary D VD W VD South western D VW D W VW D W W W D VD D VD D VD 6 3 4 2 Central D D VW VW VW VW VD D VD D W W 4 2 2 4 Eastern VD VW D D VW VW W VD D W W D D W D VW D D W 8 2 5 4 Central northern D W W D D VW W D W D W W D VW D VD VD VW D D W 9 2 7 3 Key D = dry; VD = very dry; W = wet; VW = very wet; Clear cell = normal Table 3.2 Probability distribution of dry spells adopted from Table 3. Source: Philip M. Gwage (unpublished) Category Normal Wet Very Wet Dry Very Dry South West 0.58 0.11 0.06 0.17 0.08 Central 0.67 0.06 0.11 0.11 0.06 Eastern 0.47 0.14 0.11 0.22 0.06 Central North 0.42 0.19 0.08 0.25 0.06 CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 26 b) Temperature variability This analysis shows sustained warming particularly over southern parts of Uganda. The fastest warming regions are in the Southwest of the country where the rate is of the order of 0.3oC per decade. The minimum temperature is rising faster than the maximum temperature. The year-toyear variation in annual mean, maximum and minimum temperatures over selected stations in Uganda are shown in Figure 3.6. Figure 3.6 Mean minimum temperature anomalies: selected regions Source: department of meteorology 3.1 Vulnerability This section describes the vulnerability of Uganda to climate change and how climate change impacts its natural resources, livelihoods and socio economic development. It relates major findings from the field PRA to information obtained from the literature review. The community PRA findings are summarized in Tables 3.3 to 3.5. The majority of issues raised by the communities was crosscutting and therefore referred to across the various sections of this document to include agriculture, water, health, wildlife and forestry. The results show that impacts of adverse effects of climate change negatively affect Uganda mainly through extreme weather and climate events such as droughts, storms (wind, rain, thunder and dust), floods, extreme high temperatures and landslides (Table 3.3). The Table also shows that Uganda is most affected by droughts followed by storms and landslides, which are confined to highland ecosystems. Table 3.4 shows impacts of disasters based on the outputs of the PRA. Again impacts related to droughts represent a high percentage about 36% (2,3,6,8,15 have drought impact relation). Implementation of the NAPA activities must take into account the major disasters and impacts of these disasters (Tables 3.3. and 3.4). Table 3.3: Major disasters based on PRA Occurrence of disasters Disasters reported in sampled districts 1. Droughts (frequent and prolonged) 2. Storms (wind, rain, thunder, lightning and hailstones) 3. Floods 4. High temperatures 5. Pests and disease epidemics 6. Heavy rains 7. Landslides Respondents in % 25 21 12 12 12 10 7 CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 27 The reports across the country indicate that there has been increased rainfall variability, reduction in amounts (rainfall) and rise in temperatures. Occurrence of landslides was concentrated in the highland ecosystems, while flooding was in lowland ecosystems. Prolonged droughts were reported across the country. This explains the relatively higher reporting percentage of droughts as indicated in Table 3.3. It has also been observed that droughts have become more frequent and severe as shown in Fig. 3.1. The disasters cited by the communities are interlinked in that they cause similar effects. The rains are decreasing in amount, and yet they fall in concentrated heavy showers and storms, leading to landslides, floods, storms and soil erosion (Table 3.4). Table 3.4: Major impacts of disasters based on PRA Impacts reported in sampled districts 1 Destruction of infrastructure 2 Famine 3 Lack and disappearance of pastures 4 Deforestation 5 Destruction of biodiversity 6 Wild fires and burning leading to destruction of natural vegetation 7 Erratic seasons and rains 8 Drop in water level in our water bodies 9 Epidemics of pests and diseases 10 Direct loss of lives 11 Low production and productivity of crops and animals 12 Poor health 13 Poverty 14 Soil erosion and land degradation 15 Water shortage and drying up of water sources such as wells % 9 9 9 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 3.1.1 Vulnerability of water resources Although it is predicted (IPCC Assessment Reports 1995/2001) that precipitation will increase in some areas of East Africa as a result of climate change, evapotranspiration will also increase due to a rise in temperatures thus reducing the benefit of the increase. Prolonged and severe droughts can lead to low water levels in rivers, underground aquifers and reservoirs, impacting on the hydrology, biodiversity and water supply. Low reservoir levels can also reduce the potential for hydropower generation leading to power rationing in the domestic and commercial sectors, thus resulting in interruption of economic activities and decline in manufacturing output. Droughts have resulted in lowering of water table, and drying of boreholes as indicated in Fig. 3.7 Fig. 3.7 Dry borehole in Masaka in 2005 CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 28 The cattle corridor (Fig. 1.4), a fragile ecosystem, depends on rainwater for human consumption and production. The prolonged and severe drought of 1999/2000 caused severe water shortage leading to loss of animals, low production of milk, food insecurity, increased food prices and generally had negative effect on the economy. Fig 3.8 shows the impact of the 2005 drought on cattle in Nakasongola (in the Cattle Corridor). The rural poor depend on streams and swamps, which dry up during droughts. Therefore, climate change will exacerbate water scarcity and pollution problems, particularly in the semi-arid areas, urban centres and rural communities. Fig 3.8 Drought in Nakasongola 2005 Floods like droughts have negative effect on water resources. A large proportion of rural poor do not have pit latrines. Floods pose serious pollution problems to sources of drinking water, with the potential danger of outbreaks of waterborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid and dysentery. The poor are the most affected by outbreaks of such diseases. Therefore, effective utilization of weather and climate information in the management of water resources can yield substantial socio-economic benefits, particularly during droughts and floods. Thus the need to strengthen data collection, analysis and dissemination of weather and climate information to support implementation of adaptation activities. 3.1.2 Vulnerability of the agricultural sector The intergovernmental panel on climate change predicts a decrease in world food production of 5 ñ 11% by 2020 and 11 ñ 46% by 2050. The shortfall in the worldís staple foods supply is estimated at 400 to 600 million tons by the 2080s and will increase hunger and poverty, particularly in the poor countries. Three-quarters of people who are at risk of hunger as a result of climate change are in Africa. Climate change affects agricultural production in a diverse and complex manner. For example, an increase in temperature escalates soil chemical reactions leading to increase in decomposition of organic matter and therefore release of greenhouse gases into atmosphere. This process also results in loss of fertility thus affecting yield negatively. Increased concentrations of CO2 on the other hand improve rice, wheat and soybean production, however, its effect on corn, sorghum, sugarcane and millet yield are rather negative. While temperature increases lead to extension of CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 29 growing period for crops in high-latitudes and an increase in yield at higher than normal CO2 level in colder conditions, it is associated with increased prevalence and emergency of pests and vectors resulting into escalation of diseases. Thus, the effects of climate change are difficult to predict. a) Food security The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) report on food insecurity has identified population groups, countries, and regions that are vulnerable. For example, nearly half the population in countries of central, southern, and east Africa is undernourished. In the late 1990s, 790 million people in developing countries did not have enough to eat. Climate change represents an additional pressure on the world food supply system. That system, which has yielded an overall increase in per capita food supplies over the past 4 decades, has shown signs of faltering over the past decade. The NAPA studies in Uganda have had similar observations, namely food insecurity and malnutrition of both humans and animals, being exacerbated by climate change. Many of the major impacts listed in Table 3.4 do lead to food insecurity. b) Temperature rise The PRA findings revealed rising environmental temperatures (Table 3.3). This was particularly evident in the colder highland ecosystems. In Kabale for example, the rise in temperatures have favoured the proliferation and breeding of mosquitoes, increasing malaria prevalence and reducing labour and agricultural productivity. In the Rwenzori Mountains, crops such as cassava, which hitherto did not do well in the cold zones of this mountain are now being grown. c) Pest and disease epidemics Climate variables control the geographical distribution of pests and diseases, and therefore expand their distributions to new areas. In semi-arid Karamoja for example, tickborne diseases have been reported. The tsetse belt has expanded resulting into higher morbidity of Nagana and sleeping sickness and associated drug resistance. Climate change induced escalation in epidemics of pests and diseases were reported across districts in both livestock and crops as major causes of low productivity (Tables 3.3 ñ 3.4). In Katakwi district, grasshopper epidemics in 2005 destroyed all cereals, the main source of food security in Osuku County. Armyworms have been reported in Wakiso, Tororo and Pallisa districts. Newcastle disease epidemics in poultry have been more frequent in poultry keeping areas such as Rakai and Soroti. Similarly, an increase in the occurrence of Nagana and tickborne diseases among others was reported in the cold mountainous ecosystems (Tables 3.7, 3.9, 3.10). Temperature rise in cold mountain areas enables vector and pests to increase their ecological range to areas where they would otherwise be limited by low temperatures. This causes more infestation during the following production season, as the new hosts will not have had immunity. Altered wind patterns also change the spread of wind-borne pests, vectors and pathogens for crop, livestock and human diseases. PRA findings revealed an increase in drought and flood-related diseases (Tables 3.5, 3.6, 3.7). Newcastle disease epidemics and malnutrition in poultry farming areas were more prevalent. Reports from livestock farmers indicated that worms and vector-borne diseases are more prevalent. During floods, waterborne diseases such as respiratory infections and calf diarrhoea escalate. d) Biodiversity loss Disappearance of plant species, particularly medicinal plants and pasture, has been observed. This is related to changes in the ecosystems and land degradation resulting from extreme droughts and unsustainable agricultural practices. Despite efforts to introduce exotic pasture, crop and livestock species, farmers have tended to cling to their traditional crops and livestock species, because of their water and heat stress resistant qualities. Loss of herbal plants, life and physical injuries are most prominent in highland ecosystems (Table 3.5). This is mainly due to high CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 30 Production issues 1. Pasture insufficiency and malnutrition 2. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene diseases 3. Water pollution and stress 4. Deaths (direct loss of life) 5. Damage to infrastructure (e.g. kraals) 6. Physical injuries of individuals 7. Loss of medicinal plants % 28 23 21 13 11 3 1 population density leading to pressure for arable land (over cultivation), deforestation and soil degradation resulting in frequent landslides. Table 3.5 shows the highland ecosystem as the most vulnerable followed by the semi-arid ecosystem. Table 3.5 Production and health concerns related to climate change disasters Parameter Loss of life Food insufficiency and malnutrition Loss of herbal plants Damage to homestead and infrastructure Physical injuries Dust storm, respiratory and eye diseases Sanitation and hygiene related diseases Water pollution and stress Ecosystems (%) 71 37 100 36 67 14 33 27 0 20 0 21 0 29 27 19 14 32 0 29 0 43 20 16 0 12 0 13 33 14 7 11 14 0 0 2 0 0 13 27 e) Soil fertility Higher environmental temperatures increase soil temperatures leading to increase in soil chemical reactions (Buol et al., 1990). They also increase the rate of microbial decomposition of organic matter and release of CO2 to the atmosphere. This enhances leaching and erosion, thereby adversely affecting soil fertility. Similarly, increased rainfall in moist regions could increase leaching of minerals, especially nitrates. On the other hand, decrease in rainfall, could have more dramatic effect, through the increased frequency of dry spells leading to increased proneness to wind erosion. The fast decline in soil fertility and low productivity reported in all ecosystems could be related to these observations. Appropriate soil protection approaches are needed to reverse this situation. f) Crop yield Crops such as potatoes, with indeterminate growth habit, may increase in yield with increasing temperatures, provided these do not exceed optimum temperatures for crop development. This may partly explain the high yields of Irish potatoes, sorghum, maize and wheat reported in the highland ecosystems of Mbale, Kapchorwa, Kisoro and Kabale in the PRA. g) Livestock production Climate and annual weather patterns are key factors in livestock productivity. Despite technological advances, such as improved animal breeds and management systems productivity is still low due to severe reduction in quantity and quality of pastures and drinking water and increased disease and vector prevalence. These lead to death of animals during extreme drought and flood periods. Lack of water accounts for 72% of livestock production issues (droughts) (Table 3.6). Malnutrition and worm infection accounts for 41% of livestock health issues. Other important diseases are Tick borne and Newcastle representing 29% (Table 3.7). Therefore improving access to water, sanitation and hygiene in the pastoral drylands ecosystems can yield substantial results. Table 3.6. Major livestock production issues based on PRA Highland Lowland Semi-arid Lake Basin Aquatic CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 31 Table 3.7: Major livestock health issues h) Water availability Climate change modifies rainfall, evaporation, runoff, and soil moisture storage. The amount and availability of water stored in the soil is crucial for crop growth. Too much precipitation can cause disease infestation in crops especially legumes, while too little can be detrimental to crop yields, especially if dry spells occur during critical development stages. Fig 1.5 shows the impact of severe drought on a maize field in Masaka in 2005. Moisture stress during the flowering, pollination, and grain-filling stages is especially harmful to cereals and legumes (Decker et al, 1986). Similarly, livestock are affected by both weather extremes. For every kg of dry-matter intake, 3 kg of water must be available to the animal. Shortage of water escalates infertility and lowers growth and milk production. Likewise, global warming is expected to cause rise in water level and flooding of agricultural land in shorelines. A decrease in water levels seems to be the most long-term effect in Ugandaís water bodies (Tables 3.5-3.6). PRA revealed a decrease in water levels in most lakes, complete drying of fish ponds, complete disappearance of wetlands, drying up of valley dams and lowering of water tables resulting in drying and closure of boreholes. The lack of water for livestock, humans and backyard crop irrigation impacts negatively on productivity and livelihoods. Extreme floods associated with El Nino rains like those which occurred in 1961/63 and 1997/98 cause rise in water table further inland and can submerge agricultural land, crops and livestock, resulting into enormous losses. This is frequent in areas around Lake Kyoga. Floods promote diseases such as foot rot, worms, respiratory infections and diarrhea. 3.1.3 Vulnerability of the health sector The long-term good health of populations depends on the continued stability and functioning of the biosphereís ecological and physical systems, often referred to as life-support systems. Extreme weather events directly cause death and injury and have substantial indirect health impacts. Indirect impacts a result from damage to the local infrastructure, population displacement and ecological change. Direct and indirect impacts can lead to impairment of the public health infrastructure, psychological and social effects, and reduced access to health care services. The Table 3.8 summarizes the potential impacts of climate change on the health sector. IPCC (2001) indicates that many vector, food and water-borne diseases are sensitive to changes in climatic conditions. Results of predictive models have shown that under climate change scenarios, there would be a net increase in the geographical range of potential transmission of malaria and dengue ñ two vector-borne infectious diseases, each of which currently affect 40-50% of the world population. Within their present ranges, these and many other infectious diseases would tend to increase in incidence and seasonality ñ although regional decreases would occur in some infectious diseases. The IPCC paper also argues that projected climate change will be accompanied by an increase in heat waves, often exacerbated by increased humidity and urban air pollution, which would cause an increase in heat-related deaths and illnesses. Livestock Health Issues 1. Malnutrition and starvation 2. Worm infestations 3. Tick borne diseases 4. Newcastle disease 5. Respiratory diseases and diarrhea in calves 6. Poor hygiene, sanitation and zoo noses n 7. Insect disease vectors 8. Sleeping sickness % 25 16 15 14 12 11 4 3 CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 32 Mode of impact Direct Indirect due to disturbances of ecological systems Mediating process ß Exposure to thermal extremes especially heat waves ß Altered frequency and/or intensity of other extreme weather conditions (floods, storms etc) ß Effects on ranges and activity of vectors and infective parasite ß Altered local ecology of waterñborne and foodñborne infective agents ß Altered food (especially crop) productivity due to changes in climate, weather, and associated pests and diseases ß Fresh water vulnerability ß Sea level rise with population displacement and damage to infrastructure e.g. sanitation ß Levels and biological impacts of air pollution including pollens and spores ß Social, economic and demographic dislocations due to adverse climate change impacts on the economy, infrastructure and resource supply Health outcome ß Altered rates of heat and cold-related illness especially cardiovascular and respiratory diseases ß Deaths, injuries and psychological disorders, damage to public health infrastructure ß Change in geographic ranges and incidence of vectorñborne diseases e.g. an increase in temperature of 1.2.o C can shift potential malaria risk areas from the traditional tropical to temperate zones ß Changed incidences of diarrhea and infectious diseases ß Regional malnutrition and hunger with consequent impairment of child growth and development especially in vulnerable communities ß Injuries, increased risk of various infectious diseases (due to migration, overcrowding, contamination of drinking water), psychological disorders ß Asthma and allergic disorders, other acute and chronic respiratory disorders and deaths ß Wide range of public health consequences e.g. mental health, nutritional impairment, infectious diseases, civil strife Fig. 3.9 Cholera outbreaks in Uganda 1997-2004 Source: Ministry of Health Table 3.8 Potential impacts of climate change on health sector. a) Communicable and vector-borne diseases Over the last few decades, Uganda has experienced an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events with serious consequences on the health sector. For example, during the 1997/8 El Nino there were outbreaks of water-borne and water-related diseases (Figure 3.9 and PRA data summarized in Tables 3.9 & 11) in particular cholera and malaria in most districts, leading to the death of many people. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 33 (i) Cholera A cholera epidemic, first reported in October 1997 in Lolwe and Sigulu islands of Bugiri District, hit Kampala City in December and subsequently spread to 39 districts. By 15 July 1998, 41,857 people had been taken ill, of whom 1,682 died (Ministry of Health, 1998). An estimated 11,000 people were hospitalized and treated for cholera triggered by the 1997/8 El Nino floods (Figure 3.9) and landslides. The outbreak was controlled and cases steadily declined until the second El Nino of 2002. During the El Nino of 2002, cholera outbreaks were localized to 14 out of the 56 districts. This was due to the good preparedness. There were very few cases in the preceding years. The floodwaters caused destruction of homesteads, latrines, destruction of landing sites, for example along Lake Bunyonyi in Kabale leading to outbreaks of dysentery and diarrhea. The situation was similar in Nakasongola and Soroti where poor sanitation led to increase in diarrhoeal diseases. Rocky terrain and collapsing soils in highland areas make construction of latrines difficult. This effect is similar to the high-water table areas along water bodies such as the landing sites. In lowland, aquatic and Lake Basin ecosystems, increased outbreaks of malaria, bilharzia and other water-borne diseases were reported during and immediately after floods. Table 3.9: Health concerns related to climate change based on PRS Issues 1. Malaria 2. Bloody diarrhoea and dysentery 3. Poor hygiene and sanitation 4. Cholera 5. Bilharzia 6. Helmintic infestations 7. Insect disease vectors 8. Sleeping sickness 9. TB 10. Typhoid 25.0 18.8 18.8 15.6 6.3 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 Parameter 1. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene diseases 2. Food insufficiency and malnutrition 3. Water pollution and stress 4. Infrastructure damage 5. Loss of life 6. Respiratory and Eye infections 7. Injuries 8. Loss of medicinal plants 28.9 26.7 18.5 14.8 4.4 3.7 2.2 0.7 Table 3.10: Disease outbreaks related to poor sanitation based on PRA. Tables 3.10 and 3.11 highlight public health concerns in the water and sanitation, food nutrition and sufficiency and outbreaks of communicable and vector-borne diseases. Malaria, bloody diarrhoea and dysentery, poor hygiene and sanitation (including cholera) accounts for 78.2% of the health issues. Water related disease outbreaks accounts for 47.4%, malnutrition (26.7%) and infrastructure damage (14.8). These PRA findings confirmed reports from the Ministry of Health in section 3.5.2 above. Besides, severe droughts resulted in frequent dust storms and associated respiratory and eye infections in the lowland ecosystems. In Nakasongola, Lira and Rakai for example, there was an increase in eye infections and persistent respiratory tract infections. (%) of Respondents % of Respondents CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 34 District Bushenyi Kabale Kisoro Mbarara Ntungamo Rukungiri % Malaria cases as proportion of all diseases registered in health units % Increase 1997/98 30.5 51.5 31.0 135.5 43.0 23.0 1996 20.1 18.0 31.6 31.7 33.0 1997 25.5 22.7 19.0 29.3 32.2 39.0 1998 33.3 34.4 25.0 69.0 46.0 48.0 Fig. 3.10 Malaria treatment compared to total out patience in government and NGO facilities. Source: Ministry of Health Severe droughts resulted in drying of water sources leading to serious water shortages especially in the lowland ecosystems. This compromised personal hygiene resulting into escalated faecaloral transmission of diseases. The floodwaters caused silting, pollution of water sources and destruction of gravity flow water supply systems. For example, Kasese district experienced widespread floods in 2003 and 2004, which disrupted the gravity flow water system, contaminated other water sources and resulted into a cholera outbreak where about 200 people were affected and six people died. (ii)Malaria There was a general increase of malaria incidences throughout the country, particularly in southwestern Uganda where it reached epidemic proportions. Data from health units in the districts of southwestern Uganda in 1996, 1997 and 1998 reveal an increase in the cases of malaria cases ranging from 23% in Rukungiri to 135.5% in Mbarara district (Ministry of Health, 1998). Table 3.11: 1998 malaria cases compared with 1996 and 1997 for the month of February Source: Ministry of Health (1999) Figure 3.10 shows a trend in malaria cases for children five and above years of age and a decline in under-five years, while figure 3.11 shows a sharp trend in both cases. Indeed, malaria has been identified as the most serious killer disease. According to the Malaria Control Programme (2002) malaria causes more illness and death in Uganda than any other single disease. It is responsible for more than 15% of life years lost due to premature death. It accounts for about 15-40% of outpatientís attendances at health care facilities and about 9-14% of deaths of inpatients. . Epidemics of varying severity and extent occurred in these areas in 1992, 1994, 1997/98 and 2000/ 2001. The PRA findings revealed an increase in malaria prevalence in originally malaria-free belts, particularly in the highland ecosystems. The populations in these areas have no protective immunity and this exposes them to high infection rates, morbidity and mortality. In Kabale for example, the rise in temperatures created conditions for the proliferation of mosquito breeding sites. Proportion of malaria treatment out of all OPD attendence Trend in proportion of malaria treatment out of all OPD attendences - Government and NGO facilities CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 35 Fig.3.11 Reported malaria morbidity in Uganda Source: Ministry of Health b) Injuries and loss of lives Floods are associated with death and injury to human population. Direct loss of lives is particularly high in the highland ecosystem (Table 3.5). At national level, during the 1997/8 El Nino floods and landslides, about 1,000 people died in flood-related accidents, and 150,000 were displaced from their homes. In Mbale and Kapchorwa, for example, 60 people were injured and 33 died in the 1997/98 El Nino floods and landslides. In Rakai the hailstorms of 2005 resulted into three deaths and displacement of 2,800 people. Violent windstorms also claimed many lives when boats capsized on lakes. In one incident, 21 people lost their lives when a boat traveling to Kalangala capsized on Lake Victoria. c) Health infrastructure Weather conditions also affected the road network by destroying bridges thus jeopardizing the distribution of drugs and other supplies to the affected areas. Extreme weather and climate events weakened the infrastructure of health services, especially in the highland ecosystems. In Mbale, Kapchorwa, Kabale and Kasese, heavy rains associated with landslides and flooding disrupted transport, leading to difficulties in providing health services. Health facilities, latrines and water sources were washed away. This led to outbreaks of communicable diseases. In Rakai, hailstorms of 2005 destroyed River Bukora Bridge, caused siltation on Lakes Kijanibarora and Kakyera, and polluted water sources. d) Nutrition PRA findings indicated that heavy rains, thunderstorms, hailstorms, landslides and floods destroyed food crops leading to food scarcity. In 2004, heavy rains, thunderstorms and lightning, led to severe famine in Kabale especially in the sub counties of Muko, Burambo and Karambo. In 1936, floods and landslides were followed by two years of severe famine in Mbale. Landslides have become more frequent in the highlands. Food scarcity results into nutritional insufficiency with serious health consequences. Overall, food insufficiency and malnutrition accounted for 36% of the reports in the district PRAs. The floods also resulted into the destruction of root crops like cassava, Irish and sweet potatoes, leading to poor nutrition. Severe droughts also led to food and nutritional insecurity because of crop failure, increase in livestock diseases, increase in crop pests like bean aphids, and prevalence of bush fires. The droughts have also become more frequent and intense (Figure 3.1). CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 36 3.1.4 Vulnerability of forestry sector Climate change induced changes are likely to affect forests and wildlife in various ways. The impacts manifest through a number of extrinsic and intrinsic reactions. In wildlife, extrinsic behaviour involves movement to hostile environment in search of food and water. Intrinsic manifestations involve imbalance in physiology leading to phenomena, such as reduced immunity and also hormonal imbalance giving rise to disruption in reproduction. Extreme weather and climatic events such as windstorms and flooding can destroy and kill trees on a massive scale as observed in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP). However, trees and forests, on the other hand, are generally resilient and respond to the impacts of climate change very slowly and insidiously. To illustrate this, a genuine climate-induced shift in phenology of leafing, flowering and fruiting of forest trees may not be attributed to climate change since such a phenomenon can easily be fitted into natural cyclical patterns. Watson (2001) stated this dilemma succinctly: climate change may lead to conditions unsuitable for the establishment of key species but the slow and delayed response of long-lived plants hide the importance of the change until the already established individuals die or are killed in a disturbance. Similarly, unlike the animals, migration of trees and plants to trek environmental shifts induced by climate changes, in general, is seriously curtailed. Watson (2001) noted that fossil records indicate that the maximum rate at which most plant species have migrated in the past is about 1 km per year. Known constraints imposed by the dispersal process (e.g. the mean period between germination and the production of seeds, and the mean distance that an individual seed can travel) suggest that, without human intervention, many species would not be able to keep up with the rate of movement of their preferred climatic niche projected for the 21st century, even if there were no barriers to their movement. The heavy cutting and burning of the forest cover contributed to land and soil degradation. This practice over the years has created fertile grounds for susceptibility to climate change the fragile ecosystems (cattle corridor) and highlands. In such fragile ecosystems, deforesting and/or degrading forests predispose poor communities to climate change disasters (e.g. landslides), exacerbate the severity of some disasters (e.g. floods and windstorm) and trigger a downward spiral of food insecurity and its consequences. The disappearance of medicinal plant species was consistently reported. This is serious because a large proportion of the rural population depends on direct herbal medicine to treat a wide range of ailments. The disappearance is mainly related to changes in the ecosystems, land degradation and unsustainable use. The loss of herbal plants was most prominent in highland ecosystems (Table 3.5). 3.1.5 Vulnerabilities of wildlife sector Droughts, heavy rainfall and high temperatures are the most significant disasters affecting wildlife (Table 3.12). The vulnerabilities of the wildlife are presented based on disasters. Table 3.12: Disasters in national parks and wildlife reserve based on PRA Disaster Drought Heavy rain High temperature Wind storm Lightening % 28 27 27 9 9 CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 37 a) Impacts of drought on wildlife Various forms of drought-induced vulnerabilities were identified depending on geographical locality. Generally, protected areas in the lowland dry up as a result of drought. This loss of water triggers many types of vulnerabilities for example migration of people and animals, outbreaks of bush fires and soil erosion (strong winds). (i) Incursions Various forms of incursion into the Protected Areas (PAs) are experienced because of drought. Pastoralists drive their cattle into the PAs in search of pasture and water. In Lake Mburo National Park (LMNP), over 300,000 cattle entered the park to access water from river Rwihizi, thus degrading over 100sq km of park (Adonia, Personal communication). Refugees from Nakivaale and Oruchinga Valley and the neighbouring communities enter the park to harvest wood and herbal medicine as well as poaching on the wildlife. In Toro-Semiliki Wildlife Reserve (TSWR), the pastoralists are refugees from DR Congo and neighbouring communities. Although the PAdegrading incursions by Congolese refugees are a menace to wildlife, they are sometimes a source of security-related information. In Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP), people from neighbouring communities encroach into PA leading to disease transmission, namely, game to livestock and vice-versa (e.g. tick borne diseases in LMNP and TSWR) and people to gorilla and vice-versa (e.g. influenza in BINP). Wild animals invading shambas (fields) cause community-PA conflicts. In such situations, if the conflicts are not properly resolved, animals may be killed. (ii)Wild fires Protected Areas experience drought-induced wild fires set by, poachers (Lake Mburo National Park (LMNP) and Toro-Semliki Wildlife Reserve (TSWR)) and refugees from Congo (TSWR) and Oruchinga and Nakivaale in LMNP. Wild fires are highly destructive to wildlife, both fauna and flora, below- and above-ground; although plants, which regenerate after the fires provide luxuriant, pasture for grazers and browsers. Poachers often take advantage of the wildlifeís love for luxuriantly regenerating post-fire pasture. Another strategy is to set fire outside the park or reserve to lure wildlife for poaching, for example in TSWR. (iii)Migration of animals Many wild animals in LMNP migrate to Tanzania and those in Toro-Semliki Wildlife Reserve (TSWR) to DR Congo. Migration is a coping strategy although the wildlife may encounter hostility in the new environment such as poachers. Migration may be localized to swamps, as is the case in LMNP, where game animals invade swamps to find more hospitable environment. However, in the process some animals such as zebras often get stuck in mud. This makes PA staff pre-occupied with rescue activities. Very often, the drought-induced movement contributes to increased tendency of wild animals to hide, thus making the affected PA less attractive to tourists. This undermines the campaign for increased tourism as a source of foreign exchange for Uganda. (iv)Drop in water level River courses through PAs experience drop in water level. At the time of this study, River Rwizi in LMNP was reported to have dropped 4 metres below previous level (Abaho, Personal communication). Drop in water level causes disruption in wildlife ecotone activities associated with riverbanks, as animals have to struggle to move down to the new water level. (v)Disruption of biological Clock Disruption of biological clock was identified as one of the drought-induced vulnerabilities in LMNP associated with poor feeding. This phenomenon affects the reproductive cycle in both wild and domestic animals by interrupting hormonal balance. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 38 b) Impacts of heavy rain on wildlife (i) Destruction of infrastructure Destruction of infrastructure takes place in different forms depending on the geographical location. It is experienced in many PAs; for example, in BINP roads and footpaths are obstructed by fallen trees, while in TSWR roads and houses are destroyed. Sometimes the destruction of infrastructure (roads) is compounded by increased incidences of landslides in BINP. (ii) Loss of life The Mountain Gorilla, of which half of the worldís population is found in Uganda, is also under threat from climate change (www.peopleandplanet.net/doc.php?id=1036). In the present study, park managers reported that three infant gorillas born in the BINP during the 1997/8 El Nino died. Another three infant gorillas were reported dead in Buhoma during the heavy rains of April 2005. Loss of life during heavy rain was recorded also among people in TSWR. (iii) Destruction of flora During heavy rains many trees fall down by wind in BINP. This opens the canopy, which in turn encourages natural regeneration of vegetation, some of which are preferred food plants for gorillas. (iv) Lightning Climate change will lead to increase frequency of extreme weather and climate events, including heavy falls. In connection with increased incidences of heavy rain, incidences of lightning were reported to be on the increase in BINP. In the same park, lightning disrupts the functioning of the Repeater Communication System. Occasionally, human life is threatened by lightning, an example being one that occurred there in 2005. c) Impacts of high temperatures on wild life The distribution of plants and animals is determined by temperature and moisture patterns. The distribution may change as a result of geographical shifts, changes in species composition or extinction. According to Hopkinís bioclimatic law, for every three degrees Celsius rise in temperature, there is a northward shift (in vegetation) of 250km. It is predicted that climate change could alter the range of African antelope species generally in the 21st Century. More than 90 per cent of the worldís 80 antelope species are found in Africa. The loss of sensitive species limits biological diversity, but the loss of key species, which play a role in the support of others may lead to a chain of extinctions. The reported recession of glaciers on the Rwenzori Mountains has potential repercussions for wildlife specialized to living in the mountain or alpine habitats as well as for those living down below the mountains but depend on the mountains as a vital water source. New aspects of vulnerabilities in highland ecosystems were noted during the PRA. Infrastructures, namely mountain bridges in RNP, have been destroyed by snow melting owing to temperature increase. The melting of snow brought about increased complication in walking on mountain rocks, because RMS members and wildlife staff were previously walking and life saving on snow rather than rock surface. The emergence of complication in walking on rock brought about necessity to train in rock-climbing and walking by RMS staff. Furthermore, snow melting has reduced the number of ice caps from six (Speke, Stanley, etc) to two (Margareta and Alexandra). Nostalgia, the socio-cultural anxiety, for the legacies associated with the sight of snow and its seasonality is a constant bother in the minds of many communities CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 39 Disasters Droughts (frequent and prolonged Storms, floods, heavy rains, landslides High temperatures Pests and disease epidemics Impacts Famine, malnutrition, pasture insufficiency, lack and disappearance of pastures, water stress, drop in water level in our water bodies, low production and productivity of crops and animals, poor health, poverty Epidemics of pests and diseases, water pollution, direct loss of lives, soil erosion and land degradation, destruction of infrastructure Wild fires and burning leading to destruction of natural vegetation , destruction of biodiversity Outbreaks of epidemics of pests and diseases, poor health, low production and productivity of crops and animals Comments The most dominant and widespread disaster more pronounced and severe in the semi-arid drylands areas. It negatively impacts on ecosystems and social and economic development. The second most important cluster of disasters, which also negatively impacts on key sectors. Impact of high temperatures on agricultural production needs to be investigated This disaster poses serious health problems and can significantly affect social and economic programmes adjacent to RNP. The importance of this is that the communities are strongly committed to the protection of the Rwenzori Mountains. Another source of nostalgia identified among RMS community is reduction of snow. Some fauna, namely butterflies (at Nyakalengiko) and mushrooms are now rare in RNP as a result of temperature increase. The upward expansion of ecological zone is likely to bring an increase in socio-economic conflict as the human population seeks new cultivatable land at higher altitude. The excess heat caused by warming causes discomfort among PA staff, making attention to wildlife more cumbersome. 3.1.5 Conclusion Climate change negatively impacts on the main ecosystems (section 2.2) in various ways depending on disaster (Table 3.13). Drought is the single most important and widespread disaster in Uganda. It is increasing in frequency and severity, particularly in the semi-arid areas (Cattle Corridor). It impacts on a wide range of ecosystems, sectors and key social and economic programmes. The rural poor, whose livelihoods are dependent on natural resources, are directly most affected. Storms, heavy rains and floods are the second most important cluster of disasters. This cluster of disasters negatively impacts on key sectors such as water resources, health, soils, wildlife and infrastructure. Loss of lives and physical injuries are associated with this cluster of disasters. The impacts of this cluster of disasters are most pronounced in the highland ecosystems. Table 3.13 Summary of key disasters and their impacts CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 40 CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 41 Chapter 4. Identified Coping Strategies 4.1 Introduction Climate has varied and negatively affected communities in the past. Communities have responded and developed coping mechanisms to climate variability. These mechanisms were localized and therefore not accessible by other communities facing similar problems. The coping mechanisms have not been documented but past from generation to generation. This chapter presents coping options and strategies derived from the PRA and literature review. 4.2 Coping strategies PRA findings revealed that rural communities in Uganda had several options at their disposal for coping with climate change disasters/challenges. These, among others, should be considered when planning interventions. Resource constrained communities manipulate the options described below to develop coping strategies to avoid catastrophes from the adverse effects of climate change related disasters. However, some of the coping strategies have negative effects on the environment, e.g. bush burning resulting in biodiversity loss and soil degradation. It is against this background that the coping strategies were categorized into A and B as in sections 4.2.1 and 4.2.2. 4.2.1 Category A copying strategies Coping strategies in this category generally have positive environmental impacts and tend to be innovative. These coping strategies should be encouraged. a) Exploitation of aquatic resources Communities adjacent to water bodies consider these resources as a common good. The intensification of the frequency of droughts and famine compounds the exploitation of these resources. Once disaster strikes, fishing activities intensify as an alternative livelihood option particularly where arable land is scarce. In some districts like Soroti and Lira, consumption of aquatic plants such as the water lily (corms) by humans increases. Promotion of aquaculture is a distinct technology, which should be strengthened for coping with drought. b) Food preservation This is a time-honoured technology and coping strategy practiced by many communities to ensure food security. Different techniques are used, for example sun drying, use of herbal plants and ashes to store food, use of honey to preserve meat and smoking. This indigenous knowledge (IK) is under-utilised and not documented. Therefore, there is a strong need to promote these strategies. c) Herbal medicines This is a time-honoured coping strategy practiced by many communities to treat common ailments e.g. malaria, diarrhea, wounds, worms, skin diseases, eye infections and coughs. There are increasing reports of malaria parasites showing resistence to malaria therapy. The increasing costs of malaria drugs, particularly new drugs, coupled with resistance to malaria drugs has increased and spread the use of herbal medicine to cope with malaria epidemics. Although some herbs have CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 42 Fig 4.1 Construction of underground water reservoir. been domesticated, the majority is in the wild and endangered by unsustainable use. There is need to develop guidelines on their use. d) Alternative livelihood systems These remain options in the event of failure by conventional crop and livestock farming. Charcoal burning, brick making, craft making, bodaboda cycling and hawking are among the alternative employment options which were identified. There is need to mainstream these activities into community development. However, the present charcoal burning, brick and craft making methods have serious negative environmental effects because the methods are not sustainable.. Alternative and sustainable approaches should be explored. e) Under-utilized & non-conventional foodstuffs Many of these foodstuffs are available in the traditional farming systems and in the wild. In times of food scarcity, households exploit these resources. Examples include wild yams (modo, endagu), mulondo, matungulu, honey and wild fruits. The eating of banana and sorghum varieties meant for brewing beer, cassava and jackfruit as a meal is another coping strategy. These foodstuffs and plants have either been neglected or are unknown to the detriment of their contribution to present and future generations. There is a strong need to promote these under-utilised food resources. f) Water harvesting This is a commonly practiced coping strategy. With the frequent droughts and water scarcity, communities have been harvesting water from various sources, e.g. ground, rooftop and stem runoffs. Various approaches are used to harvest and clean the water e.g. the use of Moringa seeds in Nyabushozi and communal dams. The harvested water is used for household use, livestock, crops, construction and brick making. In agriculture, stem runoff is used in drip irrigation of crop plants notably vanilla, bananas and vegetables. Water harvested from the ground run-off is stored in open and underground reservoirs (Fig 4.1) and used in various ways including soil conservation. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 43 g) Soil conservation Coping strategies for soil erosion, landslides and soil degradation is through construction of infiltration ditches around homes, planting grass cover, terrace farming, digging trenches to divert runoff, mulching and tree planting, h) Change in husbandry practices Farmers have adopted different strategies for coping with severe effects of climatic extremes. During droughts, grazing and watering are manipulated to cope with feed and water scarcity and the high temperatures. To encourage the intake of poor quality roughage, animals are watered early in the day to cope with the high temperatures, so that by nightfall animals are sufficiently hungry to feed on the dew-moistened standing hay. Erratic seasons have led to shifting farming and staggering cropping calendars. This stresses farmers and lowers productivity. There is a need to strengthen meteorological services in order to provide timely weather and climate information early warning systems. The situation could be further improved if stress-resistant species are developed and promoted. The existing indigenous knowledge (e.g. phenology, husbandry, ethnomedicine, and weather forecasting) should be studied and integrated into the farming systems. i) Self-help initiatives This is a strategy where people come together in times of distress to help each other. They may function through formation of self-help community emergency groups and /or extended family network. j) Traditional vector control In times of increased mosquito populations especially during floods, communities use cow dung smoke to keep away mosquitoes from the homesteads. k) Indigenous approaches to rainmaking and thunderstorm prevention In some communities, special plants such as the Mutete and Lwanyi in Mbarara are believed to prevent thunderstorms, and are planted near homesteads. Similarly, not eating animals killed by lightning is believed to prevent recurrence of thunderstorms. It is, however, doubtful whether these coping strategies are not based on superstition. It is crucial that working closely with the practice owners may help to unravel the socio-cultural dimensions of these strategies. l) Increased law enforcement During droughts law enforcement is intensified in protected areas to counteract the intensified poaching and hunting activities. m)Hygiene and sanitation strategies During floods, communities are exposed to a number of hygiene and sanitation diseases. Communities intensify observing hygiene practices including water boiling, hand washing and awareness campaigns. There is a need to strengthen adherence to good hygienic and sanitation practices. n) District disaster management committee In response to increased disaster frequencies, districts have put in place district standing or rapid response committees to deal with disasters. 0) Renting land Where floods displace people, for example in Lira, people have to resort to renting land for agriculture through a barter system using the produce and/or livestock. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 44 p) Bush burning Bush burning is done by pastoralists to improve pastures and by hunters to trap wildlife. Although controlled bush burning may improve pasture quality, it is associated with immense loss of biodiversity and emission of green house gases. However, controlled bush burning is a useful tool in forestry and park management. An economic analysis of this strategy is essential. Options for pasture supply need to be explored to reduce pressure on the rangelands. Communities need to be made aware on the best practices for bush and rangeland management. 4.2.2 Category B coping strategies Coping strategies under this category have either negative environmental impact (bush burning and migration into wetlands) or distressful physiological effects. Unplanned coping strategies should be discouraged. a) Shifting cultivation Arable land for agriculture is the first resource for every rural household. However, with increasing populations, this land is fragmented and decreasing per household, leading to encroachment on natural forests, grazing land, wetlands and rangelands. Land degradation and renting arable land are on the increase. With arable land per household decreasing at a rate of 2.5%, there is need to promote intensive agriculture and productivity. b) Incursions Incursions occur in situations were pastures, water and other resources are scarce or degraded. Pastures are an important resource for livestock keepers and wildlife. Lack of water and pastures due to droughts is a major cause of incursions. This is particularly prominent in areas where pastoralism is a major form of livelihood. c) Migrations If affected communities have no option for coping with climate-induced stress, especially in drought-prone areas then, victims migrate to urban areas or resource-endowed neighbourhoods. In the lakeside communities e.g. Nakasongola, migration includes settling on suds (floating islands). This strategy causes social and economic conflicts, which may lead to instability, family disintegration and related conflicts. The movement of livestock and wildlife often ensures their survival. However, it is one of the biggest modes of disease spread. Migrating animals also suffer physical injuries and death. In the protected areas such as the national parks and game reserves, these negative aspects of the strategy are more pronounced.. In the pastoral communities where livestock is the major source of food, migration of the men (family leaders) with the livestock herds in search of water and pasture often leaves the family behind more vulnerable to famine. d) Sale of assets and use of starter stock It is normal in subsistence agriculture to reserve starter seeds and herds for future production. However in times of food scarcity these reserves are eaten or sold. Also land that is a primary asset for production is often sold at such times.. The practice of ensuring food reserves should be revived, strengthened and enforced. e) Encroachment on wetlands This is normally during droughts when rain-fed agriculture has failed. This destroys the wetlands thus changing the microclimate. Availability of water for agriculture on arable land is therefore a preferred solution to this practice. Small-scale irrigation schemes should be explored. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 45 f) Exploitation of forest and wildlife resources These are sources of diverse products (e.g. wood, craft materials, medicine and foods) and services (microclimate moderation, sanitation, and water catchments). With increasing stress, exploitation of these resources is increasing. There is therefore an urgent need to promote sustainable use of these resources. This could be enhanced by a land use policy. g) Famine marriage In times of food crisis, some parents distressfully marry off their daughters to secure dowry for survival. In some cases women and men elope to avoid famine and poverty. Some rich men are often ready to take young women. This fuels early marriages, drop out of schools and exposure to sexually transmitted infections and related reproductive complications. h) Change in eating behaviour Where the victims have no option, they resign to fate. The only options to prolong life and avert death include reducing number of meals per day, food rationing and eating wild foods (animals, fruits and tubers). i) Hunting of wild birds and animals Hunting of wild birds and animals in both gazetted and non-gazetted areas is practiced in many districts where traditional agriculture has failed e.g. Pallisa, Lira and Soroti . j) Idling Idling is due to lack of three factors: food, livelihood and economic activities. Idleness is often associated with social problems like drug abuse (alcohol, marijuana, mayirungi), stealing, robbing and other social crimes. This problem is dominant among the youths and is an area that needs to be addressed, e.g. by providing alternative livelihood options. 4.3 PRA Recommendations and interventions The communities made a number of recommendations. These were analyzed and categorized into major themes and issues as in Table 4.1. The percentage represents the proportion of a given recommendation by the respondents. However, it is important to note that there are recommendations unique to individual ecosystems, districts and sectors, which are addressed in the next section. Table 4.1: PRA recommendation categories for coping with climate change Category 1. IK documentation and awareness creation 2. Farm forestry 3. Water resources 4. Weather and climate information 5. Policy, legislation and planning 6. Land and soil management 7. Disaster preparedness 8. Alternative livelihoods 9. Health 10. Infrastructure 20 18 16 11 11 9 7 4 2 2 % of Respondents 4.3.1 Area-specific recommendations Protected areas (PA) are typically characterized by frequent incursions of people and livestock in search of specific resources. To alleviate this problem the UWA recommended: CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 46 Product Firewood Timber Pole Fruit Medicine Shade Ecosystem 22 22 11 41 0 4 21 37 25 11 5 0 16 24 12 36 8 4 0 19 25 37 13 6 50 10 0 20 10 10 ß Provision of permanent water sources to communities outside PA; ß Creation of migration corridors on one side of the PA; ß Reviewing of carrying capacity of land outside PA for cattle keepers; ß Growing trees for fuel wood outside PA; ß Protection of RNP bogs (swamps) by constructing wooden walk ways; ß Degazetting of part of the wildlife reserve to secure Toro Semliki; and ß Marking park boundaries by planting trees. 4.3.2 Recommended tree products During the PRA, respondents were asked to specify the tree species they would prefer to grow for various products. The tree products demanded in the target ecosystems were as summarized in Table 4.2. It is obvious from the summary that the demand for tree products varied with ecosystem. Nevertheless, the demand trend was persistent: fruit, firewood, timber and poles were in great demand except in the aquatic ecosystem where fruit trees are not important in rural livelihoods (Table 4.2). The high demand for fruit trees in highland, semi-arid and Lake Basin ecosystems (Table 4.2) seems to be a response to the ready fruit markets in urban centres. Fruit trees are the best entry points for the introduction of farm forestry (John Okorio, personal communication) as demanded by many communities (Table 4.1). Table 4.2: Demand (% score) for tree products in various ecosystems Highland Lowland Semi-arid Lake Basin Aquatic CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 47 Chapter 5. Prioritized Interventions and ImplementationFramework 5.1 Introduction Climate variability and its impacts have led communities to develop coping strategies to climaterelated disasters such as droughts, floods and storms. However, frequency of these events was low and therefore coping mechanisms have not been documented, developed or popularized but have been passed from generation to generation through traditional and cultural practices. The literature review and the participatory rural appraisal (PRA) informed and guided the preparation of the Ugandan NAPA. The criteria developed and described in Chapter Two were used to rank the identified intervention areas and key activities. The outputs of the ranking are summarized in Tables 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3. Table 5.1 summarizes the prioritization of the PRA intervention areas by the community and technical officers using the first tier. The first three columns of Table 5.1 show the preference of the respondents, and the remaining columns of the Table show the scores and ranking obtained by applying the first tier. Examination of the Table reveals that the prioritization by the communities has been improved by taking into account the relevant importance of the intervention areas to the national development goals. For instance, the health sector was rated lowest (2%) and yet it is viewed as a critical sector to achieving poverty eradication. It is now rated 4 while research and awareness creation is downscaled from 1 to 6. Farm forestry and water resources remain unchanged, indicating their relative importance in the overall development of Uganda. Table 5.1 Prioritized interventions issues (areas) Intervention area IK documentation and awareness creation Farm forestry Water resources Weather and climate information Policy and legislation Land and land use Health Infrastructure Total PRA Rating Proportion (%) Rank 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 First Tier Rating PEAP 3 4 3 3 2 4 4 2 MEAs 2 3 3 3 2 4 2 1 Equity 1 3 3 1 1 3 2 1 Scores Rank 6 2 3 5 7 1 4 8 The second tier (community/ecosystem level) was used to obtain the scores, which were weighted to reflect the relevance of these strategies in the national development goal, and the first 17 key intervention strategies are presented in Table 5.2. A total of 53 intervention strategies were derived from the community coping strategies. 20 18 16 11 11 9 2 2 100 6 10 9 7 5 11 8 4 60 CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 48 Sector Agriculture Forestry Forestry Water resources Wildlife Wildlife Water resources Water resources Water resources Health Weather and climate information Forestry Key intervention strategy Promote community best practices of collaborative natural resource management Promote tree growing in farmland Promote the cultivation of forest medicinal and edible plant (e.g. Malewa) species outside PAs Promote community best practices of collaborative water resource management Promote use of trees in demarcation of PAs Enhance water supply to communities adjacent to PAs Scaling-up of water and sanitation using appropriate technologies Expand access to safe water Promote appropriate and sustainable water harvesting, storage and utilization technologies Community sensitization and advocacy Improvement and expansion of health infrastructure Study and promote traditional food preservation technologies Expansion of weather observing network Promote use of IK as coping mechanism Develop and promote droughtñtolerant and early maturing plant varieties and animal breeds Promotion of multimedia approach to dissemination of weather and climate information Integrate climate change issues into the sectoral planning and implementation Score 20 20 18 20 18 20 18 18 18 23 16 20 17 19 19 19 22 Weighted score 3.67 3.33 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 2.70 2.70 2.70 2.30 2.13 2.00 1.98 1.90 1.90 1.90 1.83 Rank 1 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 9 9 10 Table 5.2 Prioritized (top 17) intervention strategies The strategies in Table 5.2 were ranked using the third tier criteria, which focused on NAPA objectives of immediacy, urgency and magnitude of the problem. The final list of prioritized and ranked intervention strategies is presented in Table 5.3. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 49 Table 5.3 Final list of prioritized intervention strategies Sector Forestry Weather/climate information Water resources Water resources Forestry Water resources Agriculture Wildlife Wildlife Health Forestry Intervention strategy Promote tree-growing in farmland Strengthen Community sensitization and advocacy on climate change-related issues Expansion of weather observing infrastructure (networks) Promotion of multimedia approach to dissemination of weather and climate information Scaling-up of safe water supply and sanitation using appropriate technologies Promote community best practices of collaborative water resource management Develop and promote droughtñtolerant and early maturing plant varieties and animal breeds Integrate climate change issues into the sectoral planning and implementation Promote appropriate and sustainable water harvesting, storage and utilization technologies Promote community best practices of collaborative natural resource management Promote use of trees in demarcation of PAs Enhance water supply to communities adjacent to PAs Improvement and expansion of health infrastructure Promote the cultivation of forest medicinal and edible plant species outside PAs Promote the cultivation of forest medicinal and edible plant (e.g. Malewa) species outside PAs Promote use of IK as coping mechanism Study and promote traditional food preservation technologies Urgency 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 Immediacy 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 Magnitude 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 1 Total score 12 12 12 12 11 9 9 9 9 9 8 7 7 7 6 5 3 Rank 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 5 5 6 7 8 The first five intervention areas resulting from use of the first tier in Table 5.1 were selected for analysis of the consistency of the three criteria. The results of the analysis are presented in Table 5.4. It is quite clear that the results of applying the three criteria are consistent, particularly in the first four sectors. Table 5.4 Analysis of the results of application of the tiers Sector Forestry Agriculture Water Resources Health Weather and Climate Information Position 1 st tier 2 1 3 4 5 2 nd Tier 2 1 3 4 8 3 rd Tier 1 3 2 2 1 CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 50 5.2 Implementation framework and institutional arrangement The Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment, the focal institution for the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol, coordinated the preparation of the NAPA. The Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment, recognizing the crosscutting nature of climate change and the need for broad participation, has established an institutional framework to coordinate the implementation of the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol. The institutional framework comprising of a multi-sectoral and multi-disciplinary National Climate Change Steering Committee and a Secretariat advises the Minister of Water, Lands and Environment on approval of CDM projects and climate change policy issues. The National Climate Change Steering Committee will provide an overall oversight for the implementation of the NAPA. The National Climate Change Steering Committee Secretariat, under the guidance of the National Climate Change Steering Committee, will coordinate the implementation of the NAPA and liaise with the UNFCCC Secretariat. It will also report to the Conference of the Parties on the implementation of the NAPA. The National Climate Change Steering Committee Secretariat, to the extent possible, will also assist with identification of sources of additional funds. NAPAs were designed to address specific urgent and immediate problems faced by communities. Therefore the NAPA projects will be executed at field level and directly supervised by line institutions at the district. Supervising line institutions will report on progress of project implementation to the Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment. The Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment will be the recipient of NAPA funds although line institutions will be responsible to the Ministry for accountability and submission of audited reports as per guidelines of the Auditor General. 5.2.1 Plan of implementation The list in Table 5.3 was re-organized to remove duplicates and developed into project matrix. A total of nine projects, based on recommendations and findings of PRA, including Table 4.1 and coping strategies, and technical knowledge, were identified. The matrix was used to develop the project profiles. The project profiles, based on the prioritized and ranked intervention strategies, are in the order of priority. This is consistent with the objectives and guidelines of NAPA. The project profiles are generic and not area specific. However, priority intervention areas can be deduced from the results of the PRA. For instance the ìCommunity Tree Growing Projectî, which aims to reduce deforestation and land degradation is most needed in the densely populated and deforested highlands (prone to land slides) and the semi-arid dry lands areas. Although the ìStrengthening of Meteorological Servicesî is national in nature priority will be given to semi-arid areas, which have sparse climate observing stations and yet rainfall in these areas is marginal. Weather and climate information is most needed in the marginal rainfall areas. Notwithstanding the urgent need to implement the Ugandan NAPA, there are a number of barriers that hinder effective implementation of the identified and prioritized interventions. To the extent possible some of the above issues should be factored into the projects. The barriers include: ß Inadequate understanding of climate change and its impacts, thus creating a barrier to resource allocation; ß Inadequate technical capacity; ß Inadequate financial resources; and ß Weak institutional and coordinating mechanisms. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 51 The preparation of NAPAs has not only raised awareness particularly at district and community level, but also hope and expectations. Implementation of the prioritized NAPA projects is therefore urgent. The cost of adaptation is high. Even the cost of the nine NAPA projects is relatively high. This therefore calls for concerted effort by the Government of Uganda, the climate change process and development partners. It is hoped that the funding of NAPA projects will stimulate interest among the key stakeholders and also lead to changes in planning approaches resulting into integration of climate change issues into development planning. The climate change process view NAPAs as a success story and indeed, a learning-by-doing activity from, which other developing countries could learn. However, the success of NAPAs will depend on the actions taken to meet the expectations of the vulnerable communities to whom NAPAs have raised a ray of hope. Table 5.5 gives the estimated cost of implementing the nine NAPA projects. The total cost is US$39.8m. However, it was recognized that financial resources may be limited and therefore the activities may only be implemented in limited but very high-risk areas. The total cost drops down to US$23.3m, starting with the high priority because it will have far reaching impacts. The first project will also aim at demonstrating the social and economic benefits of adaptation to climate change in the overall development process. Table 5.5: Estimated cost of NAPA projects No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Project Title Community Tree Growing Project Land Degradation Management Project Strengthening Meteorological Services Community Water and Sanitation Project Water for Production Project Drought Adaptation Project Vectors, Pests and Disease Control Project Indigenous Knowledge (IK) and Natural Resources Management Project Climate Change and Development Planning Project Total Immediate and Urgent Interventions Across Ecosystems Limited Area Interventions 3.2 2.5 4.2 2.8 4.0 2.0 3.5 0.6 0.5 23.3 Country Wide Interventions 5.5 4.7 6.5 4.7 5.0 3.0 8.0 1.2 1.2 39.8 5.2.2 Project Profiles The project profiles are presented below in the order of priority. PROJECT 1 Title: Community Tree Growing Project Justification: In Uganda, forestry contributes substantially to economic development and well being of her citizens. The contribution comes either in direct or indirect forms. Unfortunately, the contribution of forestry is not fully recognized in the national accounting system. And yet as implied above, there are many opportunities for exploiting forestry for poverty alleviation, economic development and environmental improvement. Conservative estimate indicates that the contribution of forestry to the nationís GDP is 6%. Mountain gorilla tourism, a forestbased enterprise earns the country Ushs 2.7 billion yearly. The value of non-timber products derived from forests is also CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 52 significant. Similarly, the biodiversity value within forest ecosystems contributes to the economy of Uganda. Values of regulating services are difficult to quantify, although they are integral to agricultural productivity, climate regulation, soil and water conservation and nutrient recycling. The rural population of Uganda depends on forest resources for basic subsistence needs. For example, over 99% of the national energy demand is met from wood fuels. Large volumes of poles and timber are also used for construction, furniture making and other manufactures. Similarly, forest sector creates significant employment probably the equivalent of one million jobs. Of these, perhaps 100,000 are in the formal sector and the majority in the fuel wood and charcoal production. Characteristically, the productivity of Ugandaís natural forests is low and has all along been known to be unable to satisfy demand of the population. Hence, a deliberate policy of tree planting was promulgated way back in the 1940s. The implementation of this policy was disrupted during the political upheavals that the country went through. This interruption has created a gap of about 30 years in the national tree-growing programme. This period coincided with onset of the everincreasing national demand for forest products, thus weakening the inherent low productivity of the natural forests and woodlands. The combined consequence of the two scenarios is two fold: severe scarcity of forest products and widespread environmental degradation. During data and information collection and the subsequent stakeholder consultations, participants overwhelmingly identified the problem of land and forest degradation as a principal factor causing rural poverty. This project is a response to this environmental complex problem and aims at empowering the vulnerable communities to produce planting materials of tree species of their choice and grow them to meet demands for forest products and services. Objective and activities The objective of this project is to increase tree cover in vulnerable and resource-constrained communities. To achieve this objective the following activities will be conducted: ß Stakeholder analysis, ß Baseline surveys to identify constrains to tree growing in target communities, ß Develop and promote growing of suitable high value trees, ß Promote community involvement in planning, monitoring and evaluation, ß Promote best practices in land use management, ß Identify and promote synergies, ß Develop seedling production systems, ß Develop and enforce byelaws for tree growing and, ß Enhance and promote energy-saving technologies and alternative energy sources. Inputs To implement the project a number of inputs are required. Tentatively the following inputs are envisaged: human resource of various professions, equipment and supplies, and vehicles. Outputs The following short-term outputs are expected to accrue from the project: ß Stakeholder preferences for tree products ß Constraints to tree growing and ways and means of solving them at community level identified ß Pamphlets on growing of suitable tree species available and distributed to communities ß Community-based nurseries and multiplication centers run by trained community-based extension workers ß Wood lots ß Byelaws made at community level ß Incentive-based enforcement of byelaws at community level and ß Trained and equipped community-based technicians in land use management CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 53 Two long-term outputs accruing from the project will be: (i) increased availability of tree products and services in the communities and (ii) increased employment opportunities in the forest industry. Implementation The lead institution for implementing the project will be Forestry Resource Research Institute (FORRI) of the National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO). Collaborators for implementing the project will be drawn from NFA, MWLE, MAAIF, ENR/SWG, NAADS and Department of Information in the Presidentís Office. Risks and Barriers Possible risks and barriers to the implementation of this project: ß Limited knowledge of tree growing ß Natural hazards and pests ß Insufficient funding, and ß Civil conflicts Monitoring and evaluation This important stage of project implementation will be a joint activity, involving the target communities. To facilitate the process a logical framework approach for the project will be designed in which milestones of achievements and their objectively verifiable indicators will be clearly specified. Financial Resources NAPA implementation will require financial resources from the Government of Uganda, Bi-laterals, Multilaterals, NGOs and CBOs. Financial Requirements will include but not be limited to: costs of training of communities, construction works, technology development, facilitation of project component personnel, production of manuals, stationeries, computers and other office accessories. Estimated total project cost is 5.5 million US$. PROJECT 2 Title: Land Degradation Management Project Justification: The economic and social development of Uganda depends on exploitation of its natural resources, including land. The rapid human population growth and demand for food, energy and other social services has necessitated the expansion of land under rain-fed crop and animal agriculture. Although land degradation is caused by poor land use, increasing climate variability and climate change that have been experienced in Uganda recently have gravely compounded this problem. Presently, soil erosion alone accounts for over 80% of the annual cost of environmental degradation representing 4-10% of GNP and estimated at about US$ 625 million per annum. The backlash of these actions is degraded soils, quest for more bush clearing, encroachment into forest reserves, reduced production of food and livestock, desertification, migration to towns to look for employment, loss of biodiversity and erosion of gene pools in agro-ecosystems. Therefore, integrated land use management to address the impact of climate change in the NAPA is crucial. Objectives To halt and reverse land degradation in climate change vulnerable and resource constrained communities in Uganda Activities The key activities of the intervention include: CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 54 ß Sensitize and strengthen the enforcement of laws and byelaws ß Promote agricultural and land use best practices, and ß Scale up information management and communication system Inputs The inputs of this project include human resources, equipment (meteorological instruments, communication equipment, logistics to enable installation and maintenance of field equipment), technical assistance and financial resources. Short-term outputs ß A number of byelaws made at community level ß Pamphlets on agricultural and land use best practices available and distributed to communities ß A number of community-based resource persons trained on agricultural and land use best practices Potential long-term outputs ß Communities practicing land and water conservation ß Increased crop and animal production and productivity Implementation The Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment (Department of Meteorology) will be the official recipient and will delegate to the appropriate institutions to implement the project in close collaboration with key stakeholders such as local governments and civil society Risks and barriers ß Civil conflicts ß Natural hazards and disasters ß Limited knowledge of tree growing ß Insufficient funding Evaluation and Monitoring The project will be evaluated every two years by a tripartite constituted by the Government of Uganda and relevant development partners. The project management will produce regular reports in accordance with the laid down monitoring plan of the project. Financial Resources NAPA implementation will require financial resources from the Government of Uganda, Bi-laterals, Multilaterals, NGOs and CBOs. Financial Requirements will include but not be limited to: costs of training of communities, construction works, technology development, facilitation of project component personnel, production of manuals, stationeries, computers and other office accessories. Estimated total project cost is 4.7 million US$. PROJECT 3: Title: Strengthening Meteorological Services Justification Climate is Ugandaís most valuable natural resource. It is not a mere natural resource, but a key determinant of the status of other natural resources such as water, land, plants and animals, on which the economic and social development of Uganda depends. Therefore, changes in Ugandaís climate are translated directly to its economic and social performance. In the past, communities knew their local climate well and it was predictable. Annual seasonal variations, particularly the onset CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 55 and cessation of rains were minimal. Therefore, weather and seasonal forecast did not make any difference and indeed climate prediction could be based on relatively few climate-observing stations. Today, under climate change, the situation is radically different because there is increased climate variability, and frequency and intensity of weather and climate events. Therefore, strengthening meteorological services to provide weather and climate information to the vulnerable communities is crucial. Objectives The main objectives of the intervention are to improve: ß Data collection and strengthen technical capacity; and ß Availability, accuracy and timeliness of weather and climate information and its use by the vulnerable communities. Activities The key activities of the intervention include: ß Expand and maintain weather and climate observing network ß Strengthen data collection, processing, analysis and interpretation ß Strengthen human capacity in weather observing, forecasting and information management ß Scale up information management and communication system ß Strengthen early warning system and its coordination mechanism ß Develop and package weather and climate information for vulnerable communities ß Sensitize communities on weather and climate information use ß Disseminate and promote use of weather and climate information ß Develop partnerships and synergies with media and other stakeholders ß Monitor and evaluate utilization of weather and climate Inputs The inputs include: human resources, equipment (meteorological instruments, communication equipment, logistics to enable installation and maintenance of field equipment), technical assistance and financial resources. Short-term outputs ß Effective and adequate climate observing network ß Skilled and effective human capacity in climate management ß Functional and effective early warning system ß Increased use of weather and climate information by communities Potential long-term outputs ß Accurate and timely provision of weather and climate information ß A community-based climate information distribution and management system Implementation The Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment will be the official recipient and the focal point will be Department of Meteorology to implement the project in close collaboration with key stakeholders such as local governments and civil society Risks and barriers ß Civil conflicts ß Natural hazards and disasters ß Limited knowledge of tree growing ß Insufficient funding Evaluation and Monitoring The project will be evaluated every two years by a tripartite constituted by the Government of Uganda and relevant development partners. The project management will produce regular reports in accordance with the laid down monitoring plan of the project. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 56 Financial Resources NAPA implementation will require financial resources from the Government of Uganda, Bi-laterals, Multilaterals, NGOs and CBOs. Financial Requirements will include but not be limited to: costs of training of communities, construction works, technology development, facilitation of project component personnel, production of manuals, stationeries, computers and other office accessories. Estimated total project cost is 6.5 million US$. Time Frame A period of 3-5 years is planned. Since there is an urgent need for adaptation to climate change, it should commence immediately. PROJECT 4 Title: Community Water and Sanitation Project Justification In Uganda, the last few decades have seen an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events with serious socioñeconomic consequences. Increased frequency of heavy rains leading to floods and landslides, compounded by a poor sanitation system, pollution of water sources and damage to sanitation infrastructure has led to increased outbreaks of water borne diseases such as typhoid, cholera, bacillary dysentery and other water related diseases (e.g. malaria, bilharzias). For example, the 1997/98 El Nino phenomenon had a significant impact on the health sector. The cholera epidemic, first reported in October 1997 in Lolwe and Sigulu Islands of Bugiri District, hit Kampala City in early December and subsequently affected 39 districts. An estimated 41,857 were hospitalized, of whom 1,682 died. About 1,000 died in flood-related accidents and 150,000 displaced. Objectives ß To increase access to safe water supply and improved sanitation among vulnerable communities in disaster prone areas. ß To strengthen community awareness on health impacts due to climate change ß To strengthen emergency & disaster preparedness & response programmes Activities ß Sensitize communities on health impacts due to climate change ß Establish emergency & disaster management plans and enhance strategic planning for disaster preparedness & response. ß Special assistance to vulnerable people, ß Relocate communities to safer areas/districts, ß Scale up poverty alleviation programmes and control population overgrowth through Family planning programmes. ß Formulating appropriate policies and strategies, legislation, standards ß Enforce public health bye ñ laws including public sensitization on relevant laws in health, environment & agriculture. ß Scale up hygiene & sanitation activities, ß improve on safe water supply through construction of more protected water sources and gravity flow schemes, ß Scale up preventive public health programmes including vector control e.g. mosquito control and management of malaria. ß Constitute food security programmes and plant multi -purpose trees for wind breaking, timber & fruits, ß Re -introduce herbal plants from other areas. ß Household Sanitation Promotion ß Strengthen school Sanitation ß Scaling up Food Safety and Hygiene ß Strengthening Water Quality Surveillance ß Scaling up Capacity Building Initiatives CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 57 Inputs ß Funds from both Development Partners and Government of Uganda ß Human Resources ß Relevant logistics and equipment Short-term outputs The expected achievements will include: ß National latrine coverage will have increased from 49% to 60% ß The minimum environmental health services package Potential long-term outputs ß Improved health through reduction of water and sanitation related diseases ß Improved and sustained socio-economic development for Uganda Implementation The Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment (Department of Meteorology) will be the official recipient and will delegate to the appropriate institutions to implement the project in close collaboration with key stakeholders such as local governments and civil society Risks and Barriers ß Inadequate funds ß Natural hazards and disasters ß Civil conflicts ß Limited knowledge ß Some communities have strong cultural resistance to assimilation / adaptation of new water and sanitation technologies Monitoring and evaluation This important stage of project implementation will be a joint activity, involving the target communities and financers. To facilitate the process a logical frame for the project will be constructed in which milestones of achievements and their objectively verifiable indicators will be clearly specified. Financial Resources NAPA implementation will require financial resources from the Government of Uganda, Bi-laterals, Multilaterals, NGOs and CBOs. Financial Requirements will include but not be limited to: costs of training of communities, construction works, technology development, facilitation of project component personnel, production of manuals, stationeries, computers and other office accessories. Estimated total project cost is 4.7 million US$. Time Frame A period of 3-5 years is planned. Since there is an urgent need for adaptation to climate change, it should commence immediately. PROJECT 5 Title: Water for Production Project Justification Agriculture is the mainstay of Uganda and is rain-fed. Subsequently, GoU aims at achieving agricultural modernization with high yielding species, varieties and breeds. These high yielding species usually require much more safe water throughout the year. However, increased climate variability and climate change will frustrate this initiative. Thus, providing appropriate water CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 58 harvesting and irrigation technologies become pertinent. Therefore, access to improved water supply and sanitation for production by 2015 is crucial. The IPCC Assessment Reports of 1995/2001 indicate that extreme weather events notably floods and droughts are to increase considerably in intensity and frequency. Floods and droughts have a negative impact on water resources. Floods pose a serious pollution of sources of drinking water with potential danger of outbreaks of water borne diseases. The large population of the rural poor and their livestock is most vulnerable to these effects given the fact that they are faced with inadequate access to water for production. Therefore, attaining adequate access to and better use of water for crop and animal production is crucial. This is to be achieved in partnership with key stakeholders and community involvement. This also is in line with the national Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) Objectives ß To improve utilization of water resources among vulnerable communities for production Activities ß Stakeholder analysis ß Baseline surveys to identify constraints to water for production access in target communities ß Develop and promote appropriate rainwater harvesting technologies ß Develop and promote simple and low cost irrigation technologies ß Construct, protect and maintain valley dams ß Develop water reservoirs inside protected areas ß Promote community involvement in planning, monitoring and evaluation, ß Promote best practices in water for production use and management ß Identify and promote synergies ß Develop and enforce byelaws for water for production Inputs To implement the project a number of inputs are required. Tentatively the following inputs are envisaged: human resource of various professions, equipment and supplies, vehicles and logistical support. In puts for training of trainers in the use/ production of water and sanitation technologies, construction works for safe water sources, drawing of guidelines on safe water use and sanitation and community training in water resources management will be required. Short-term outputs ß Rain water harvesting demonstration units in strategic places ß Appropriate irrigation demonstration units in strategic places ß Communal valley dams constructed in arid and semi-arid areas ß Increased availability and accessibility to safe water sources to vulnerable communities ß Community with sufficient capacity in water resources management ß Pamphlets on water for production use available and distributed to communities ß Number of community-based production water sources established and managed by trained community-based technicians ß Incentive-based enforcement of bylaws at community level ß A number of community-based technicians trained and equipped in water and sanitation technologies Long-term outputs ß Increased availability and utilization of rain water for production in vulnerable communities ß Increased crop and animal production and productivity ß Improved animal health through reduction of water and sanitation related diseases CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 59 Implementation The Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment (Department of Meteorology) will be the official recipient and will delegate to the appropriate institutions to implement the project in close collaboration with key stakeholders such as local governments and civil society Risks and barriers ß Inadequate funds ß Natural hazards and disasters ß Civil conflicts ß Some communities have strong cultural resistance to assimilation / adaptation of new water and sanitation technologies ß Water Resources Management is strange concept to the communities and it could be not well appreciated at community level ß Limited knowledge of water harvesting Monitoring and evaluation This important stage of project implementation will be a joint activity, involving the target communities and financers. To facilitate the process a logical frame for the project will be constructed in which milestones of achievements and their objectively verifiable indicators will be clearly specified. Financial Resources NAPA implementation will require financial resources from the Government of Uganda, Bi-laterals, Multilaterals, NGOs and CBOs. Financial Requirements will include but not be limited to: costs of training of communities, construction works, technology development, facilitation of project component personnel, production of manuals, stationeries, computers and other office accessories. Estimated total project cost is 5 million US$. Time Frame A period of 3-5 years is planned. Since there is an urgent need for adaptation to climate change, it should commence immediately. PROJECT 6 Title: Drought Adaptation Project Justification The most climate change prone communities in Uganda are those living in semi arid areas where droughts are most frequent and most prolonged. In the last decade alone, more than 10 severe droughts have occurred indicating a > 50% rise. The population growth rate is also highest in semi arid areas, averaging 9.7% in Kotido and 6% in Moroto and Nakapiripirit. Thus most climate change vulnerable communities have the highest population growth rates. Uniquely, more than 50% is < 18 years. The implication of this population structure is that sooner or later, the demand on natural resources is going to increase significantly, leading to NR degradation. These harsh environments are fragile and severely resources constrained. Ironically, these semi arid areas also form the cattle corridor, supplying most of Ugandaís livestock and meat products. However, the prolonged and frequent droughts in these areas have led to almost perpetual dependency on food aid. A typical example is in the arid areas of Karamoja where the world food program (WFP) supplies virtually all the food. Also, climate change impacts differently on men, women and youth in these drought prone areas. Women have a key role of looking after the households. They spend long hours during drought in search of water, firewood depriving them of productive time for other economic activities. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 60 This project aims to reduce impacts of droughts on vulnerable communities and fragile ecosystems. This is in line with the government PEAP which aims at improving farmersí livelihoods and eradication of poverty. Objectives This project aims at enhancing the adaptive capacity of the vulnerable communities in drought prone parts of Uganda, especially those in the arid and semiarid cattle corridor zone, so as to enhance their capacity to cope with the increasingly frequent droughts. This will enable them not only to be prepared for seasons when rains fail, but also to mitigate the effect of droughts in a situation where normatively they wouldnít be able to cope. Activities ß Baseline surveys to identify suitable intervention packages for target communities ß Develop and promote appropriate rainwater harvesting technologies ß These will include development and promoting drought tolerant perennials and early maturing varieties and breeds of crops which are able to utilize the shortened seasoned rains. ß The project will also carry out documentation on indigenous technologies to preserve food as well as improving them. These will include drying and use of native preservatives. ß Analysis of post harvest losses and promotion of adapted and improved post harvest technologies ß The projects will also identify and promote alternative livelihood options to unsustainable coping mechanisms and promote best practices especially for women and youths. These would replace the present coping mechanisms of seasonal migrations to neighboring areas, reduced food consumption and sale of stocks and heirlooms /assets. ß Promotion of pasture production, harvesting and storage. ß Promotion of nucleus multipurpose trees suitable for improved livestock production and feeding as standing and perennial fodder banks and soil conservation pillars ß Control and prevention of major animal diseases as a base for guaranteeing the major livelihood option in the cattle corridor ß Promotion of a suitable and community led livestock and animal products marketing system ß Promotion of a micro community rainwater harvesting and storage system Inputs To implement the project a number of inputs are required. Tentatively the following inputs are envisaged: human resource of various professions, equipment and supplies and vehicles. In puts for training of trainers in the use/production of adaptation technologies, construction works for feed banks and storage sites, water sources, drawing of guidelines on feed banks use, water use and community training in communal resource management and baseline research will be required. Short-term outputs These will include producing; ß A list of drought tolerant and early maturing species and varieties of crops. The project will ensure they are well documented and the information passed on to the extension workers. ß The project also aims at producing booklets, brochures and materials on appropriate production methods; for drought tolerant and early maturing species, varieties and breeds for extension workers to distribute to the farmers. ß The other output in the short term will be printed information on improved indigenous food preservation methods available for community consumption. ß In the short term, the project also intends to train community based technicians in indigenous and appropriate food preservation technology. ß The community based technician will also have knowledge in drought tolerant agronomy and production including pasture harvesting and storage techniques. ß Communal feed banks and compost pens systems established ß Nucleus demonstration sites with multipurpose trees growing established in the communities for adoption ß Mass vaccination against major animal diseases carried out and a community based mechanism of vaccination and disease prevention established CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 61 ß A suitable and community based and community led livestock and animal products marketing system established ß Promotion of a micro community rainwater harvesting and storage system Potential long-term outputs ß In the long term this project will lead to and restore household food security. ß This will in turn mean more and better quality food consumed, leading to improved nutrition as well as increased food/crops for sale; earning the household income. ß Secondly the project will ensure more livestock and crop productivity, through enhanced pasture production and storage, disease control and marketing Implementation The Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment (Department of Meteorology) will be the official recipient and will delegate to the appropriate institutions to implement the project in close collaboration with key stakeholders such as local governments and civil society Risks and barriers ß Inadequate funds ß Natural hazards and disasters ß Civil conflicts ß Limited knowledge of water harvesting ß Insufficient community mobilization, response and adapting to new innovations may limit activities. ß Community based management is new concept to the communities and it could be not well appreciated at community level Monitoring and evaluation This important stage of project implementation will be a joint activity, involving the target communities and financers. To facilitate the process a logical frame for the project will be constructed in which milestones of achievements and their objectively verifiable indicators will be clearly specified. Financial Resources NAPA implementation will require financial resources from the Government of Uganda, Bi-laterals, Multilaterals, NGOs and CBOs. Financial Requirements will include but not be limited to: costs of training of communities, construction works, technology development, facilitation of project component personnel, production of manuals, stationeries, computers and other office accessories. Estimated total project cost is 3 million US$. Time Frame A period of 3-5 years is planned. Since there is an urgent need for adaptation to climate change, it should commence immediately. PROJECT 7 Title: Vectors, Pests and Disease Control Project Justification Climate changes have expanded the geographical distribution of pests, vectors and diseases to new areas and are now prone to epidemic outbreaks. This has complicated the management of vector borne diseases and pests in animals, crops and humans. For example, in semi-arid Karamoja, tick-borne diseases have been reported. The tsetse belt has expanded to cold mountainous ecosystems, resulting into higher morbidity due to nagana and sleeping sickness in animals and humans respectively. Newcastle disease epidemics in poultry rearing districts have escalated due to frequent and prolonged droughts. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 62 Similarly, other water related diseases like Onchocerciasis (River Blindness), Bilharzaia and malaria tended to increase. Malaria is now endemic in about 95% of Uganda. The incidence of malaria epidemics has increased in the highland areas in the recent years. Uganda experienced malaria epidemics in 1992, 1994, 1997/8 and in 2000/1.The most affected areas were Mbale, Sironko, Kabale, Rukungiri and Kisoro. The main factor that triggered this rapid increase was the El Nino rains. The rains led to floods; a lot of stagnant water and growth of bushes. All these encouraged the multiplication and spread of mosquitoes. According to the baseline study, morbidity attributed to malaria in children aged less than 5 years presenting to outpatient departments was 44.4% and 41.6% for those children above 5 years of age. It is responsible for more than 15% of life years lost due to premature death. It accounts for about 15 ñ 40% of OPD attendances at healthcare facilities and about 9 ñ 14% of inpatient deaths. Malaria stricken family may spend up to 25% of its income on the direct or indirect costs of the disease. Climate change has also induced escalation of pest and disease epidemics in crops. In Katakwi district, grasshopper epidemics in 2005 destroyed all cereals the main source of food security. Armyworms have become rampant in Wakiso, Tororo and Pallisa districts. In semi ñ arid areas for example Nakasongola district, persistent termite epidemics have continuously destroyed natural vegetation. This project aims at understanding the linkages of these outbreaks to climate change for more cost-effective management with special emphasis on vulnerable communities and gender dimensions. Objectives ß To strengthen the national programmes on prevention, control and effective management of disease vectors and pests. ß To enhance the protection of the vulnerable communities against climate change related diseases and pests outbreaks. ß To strengthen community awareness on health impacts due to climate change ß Identify communities and extent of damage to communities that are vulnerable to climate change related diseases and pests outbreaks ß Investigate the relationships between climate change and, disease vectors, pests, other biodiversity including the use of herbal plants ß To assess the impact of risky occurrences of climate change related diseases and pests outbreaks on the welfare of the victimized farmers ß To enhance the protection of the vulnerable communities against climate change related diseases and pests outbreaks ß To assess the impact of interventions proposed by the project and associated with the control of climate change related diseases and pests outbreaks on reduced health and income risks of the farmers Activities ß Investigate the relationships between climate change and disease-, vector- and pest-outbreaks (e.g. termites) including biodiversity loss ß Investigate the use of herbal plants in the management of these outbreaks ß Develop and implement strategies for effective control of climate change related vector and pest outbreaks ß Implement effective programs for treatment of diseases ß Conduct monitoring and evaluation of effectiveness of vectors, pests and disease control strategies ß Verify alternative technologies for management of disease pests and vectors Inputs The following inputs are envisaged: human resource of various professions, equipment and supplies, vehicles, logistical support and laboratory services. Short-term outputs ß Knowledge of linkages between climate change and diseases, vectors, pests and other biodiversity for planning & capacity building ß Reduced incidence and prevalence of climate change-related diseases, vectors and pests ß Reports and publications about knowledge of linkages between climate change and diseases, vectors, pests and other CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 63 biodiversity for planning & capacity building ß Reduced incidence and prevalence of climate change-related diseases, vectors and pests ß Tools for data collection available for use in related tasks Potential long-term outputs ß Decreased outbreaks and ecological shifts of vector borne and communicable diseases and pests. ß Enhanced adaptive capacity of communities to climate change-related diseases, vectors and pests ß Improved health (human, crop, animal) through reduction of disease vectors and pests. ß Improved and sustained socio ñ economic development for Uganda ß Enhanced adaptive capacity of communities to climate change-related diseases, vectors and pests. Implementation The Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment (Department of Meteorology) will be the official recipient and will delegate to the appropriate institutions to implement the project in close collaboration with key stakeholders such as local governments and civil society Risks and barriers ß Inadequate funds ß Natural hazards and disasters ß Civil conflicts ß Insufficient community mobilization, response and adapting to new innovations may limit activities. ß Community based management is new concept to the communities and it could be not well appreciated at community level Monitoring and evaluation This important stage of project implementation will be a joint activity, involving the target communities and financers. To facilitate the process a logical frame for the project will be constructed in which milestones of achievements and their objectively verifiable indicators will be clearly specified. Financial Resources NAPA implementation will require financial resources from the Government of Uganda, Bi-laterals, Multilaterals, NGOs and CBOs. Financial Requirements will include but not be limited to: costs of training of communities, construction works, technology development, facilitation of project component personnel, production of manuals, stationeries, computers and other office accessories. Estimated total project cost is 8 million US$. Time Frame A period of 3-5 years is planned. Since there is an urgent need for adaptation to climate change, it should commence immediately. PROJECT 8 Title: Indigenous Knowledge (IK) and Natural Resources Management Project Justification Communities have from time immemorial used indigenous knowledge to cope with climate variability and extreme weather and climate events. During the NAPA process many IKs were encountered and they tended to be area, culture- and subject specific. For example, in Rakai, the Lwanyi, a local shrub is used as antidote to lightening. In Karamoja, initiation of farming following the first rains is sanctioned by the elders after examining the content of ruminant guts and forecasting based on an apparently ìindigenous meteorological systemî. Others include food preservation in Kapchorwa using honey, rain making using CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 64 a combination of rituals and herbal concoctions, and water purification using Moringa seeds. These traditional practices are of considerable cultural value to communities, although the scientific basis of some of them is doubtful. IK is integral to many community based practices in the areas of agriculture, forestry, water, wildlife, human and animal health management. These time-honored practices (IK) are effective ways of involving communities in sustainable management of natural resources. IK thus provides a suitable entry point for community mobilization and action. To exploit this potential for adaptation to climate change, there is need to document and understand IK and where possible establish their scientific basis. Despite the need, modern research efforts have largely ignored the integration of IK. This is due to lack of frameworks for conducting research in this important area, coupled with total disregard of IK due to misconception and disrespect of cultural values. Objectives The major objective is to enhance sustainable use and management of natural resources by the vulnerable communities. Specific objectives include: ß Support the maintenance, protection and continuity of use of indigenous knowledge in the management of natural resources ß Create awareness among stakeholders about the importance of use of indigenous knowledge in natural resource management ß Develop and implement strategies based on use of indigenous knowledge that would enhance communities to cope with effects of climate change Activities ß Document and validate climate related indigenous knowledge (IK) for natural resource management ß Develop and implement community based strategies for effective NR management ß Train communities in integrated NR management ß Promote use of appropriate IK in natural resources management ß Strengthen collaborative management of NRs, ß Identify and promote alternative livelihoods Inputs The following inputs are envisaged: human resource of various professions, supplies, vehicles, logistical support, community mobilization and copyright services. Short-term outputs ß Booklets on IK for natural resource management available and distributed to communities ß Enhanced use of IK in NR management by communities ß Incentive-based enforcement of NR management at community level ß Trained community-based technicians in NR management Long-term outputs ß Enhanced sustainable use and management of natural resources by the communities ß Better understanding and appreciation of cultural values ß Enhanced adaptive capacity of communities Risks and barriers ß Inadequate funds ß Civil conflicts ß poor information access and flow ß Insufficient community mobilization CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 65 ß Undervaluing IK by elites ß Poor packaging of IK ß Competition by western knowledge ß Lack of recognition and copyright protection by relevant authorities Implementation The Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment (Department of Meteorology) will be the official recipient and will delegate to the appropriate institutions to implement the project in close collaboration with key stakeholders such as local governments and civil society Monitoring and evaluation This important stage of project implementation will be a joint activity, involving the target communities and financers. To facilitate the process a logical frame for the project will be constructed in which milestones of achievements and their objectively verifiable indicators will be clearly specified. Financial Resources NAPA implementation will require financial resources from the Government of Uganda, Bi-laterals, Multilaterals, NGOs and CBOs. Financial Requirements will include but not be limited to: costs of training of communities, construction works, technology development, facilitation of project component personnel, production of manuals, stationeries, computers and other office accessories. Estimated total project cost is 1.2 million US$. Time Frame A period of 3-5 years is planned. Since there is an urgent need for adaptation to climate change, it should commence immediately. PROJECT 9 Title: Climate Change and Development Planning Project Justification The economic and social development of Uganda depends on exploitation of its natural resources, including climate. Climate is a key driver of the natural resources and therefore changes in Ugandaís climate will directly and negatively impact on its social and economic development. The importance of climate and its relationship with natural resources and social economic development is not well understood nor are impacts of adverse effects of climate change on development well understood either by planners and policy makers. Therefore climate change issues are not taken into consideration in the development of sectoral and investment plans. While climate change cannot be stopped, its impacts of adverse effects on social and economic development can be minimized by climate proofing development programmes. The cost of adaptation can therefore be significantly reduced and also spread. The purpose of this project is therefore to support the development, dissemination and application of mainstreaming guidelines at various levels to climate-proof development activities. Generation of climate change scenarios and their packaging will be required to support dissemination of key messages to improve understanding of climate, its variability and change. Objective To integrate climate change issues into development planning and implementation at all levels. Activities The key activities are: CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 66 ß Review existing relevant policies and laws/regulations in relation to climate change ß Develop policy, laws, regulations and byelaws on climate change ß Develop guidelines for mainstreaming including gender issues ß Sensitize and train decision makers, planners and implementers on impacts of climate change ß Undertake monitoring and evaluation Inputs The inputs of this project include human resources, technical assistance and financial resources. Short-term inputs ß Knowledge on gaps and weaknesses of existing legislation with regard to climate change available ß Policy, laws, regulations, ordinances and byelaws on climate change available ß Guidelines for mainstreaming climate change at all levels available ß Pool of trained climate change agents across sectors ß Development plans integrating climate change Potential long-term outputs The long-term output of this project is climate change proofed development programmes. Risks and barriers ß Inadequate funds ß poor information access and flow ß Inadequate sector awareness Implementation The Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment (Department of Meteorology) will be the official recipient and will delegate to the appropriate institutions to implement the project in close collaboration with key stakeholders such as local governments and civil society Monitoring and evaluation This important stage of project implementation will be a joint activity, involving the target communities and financers. To facilitate the process a logical frame for the project will be constructed in which milestones of achievements and their objectively verifiable indicators will be clearly specified. Financial Resources NAPA implementation will require financial resources from the Government of Uganda, Bi-laterals, Multilaterals, NGOs and CBOs. Financial Requirements will include but not be limited to: costs of stakeholdersí sensitization, facilitation of project component personnel, consultancy costs, production of manuals, stationeries, computers and other office accessories. Estimated total project cost is 1.2 million US$. Time Frame A period of 3-5 years is planned. Since there is an urgent need for adaptation to climate change, it should commence immediately. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 67 Selected Bibliography 1. Osmaston, H., Tukahirwa, J., Basalirwa, C. and Nyakana, J ( 1996). (Eds) The Rwenzori Mountains National Park, Uganda. Department of Geography, Makerere University. 395 pp. ISBN 9970-429-01-9, Printed by, D K Printworld (P) Ltd., New Delhi, India. 2. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2001). Third Assessment Report of IPCC, London. Cambridge University Press. 3. Forestry Department (2002). Forestry Nature Conservation Master Plan. Publishers: Ministry of Water Lands and Environment, Forestry Department. 304 PP. 4. Karekezi. S., Majoro. L., and Tohnson, T.M. (2003) Climate Change Mitigation in Urban Transport sector. Priorities for the World Bank. World Bank. Global Environment Facility (Pub.) Washington, D.C. 5. Katende, A.B; Birnie, A; and Tenywa, S, B. (1995). Useful Trees and shrubs for Uganda: Identification, propagation and Management for Agricultural and Pastoral Communities. Regional Soil Conservation Unit, (RSCU) Nairobi. 710 pp. 6. Kayanja, F I. B. and Edroma, E. L. (1986). African Wildlife Research and Management. By ICSU Press of the International Council of Scientific Unions on behalf of the African Bioscience Network(ABN). 7. Lamprey.R., Buhanga.E., Omoding.J., Michelmore .F., Olacha,.J.Egungu.F. (1999). Wildlife Protected Area System Plan for Uganda. Detailed Proposals for Protected Areas, Vol. 4, Draft 2. 8. National Environment Management Authority NEMA (2004)Capacity Needs Self Assessment Report. 9. Moyini.Y. and Onyango .G. 2000/2001. State of Environmental report for Uganda. National Environment Management Authority (NEMA). 10. Nakimera, I. (2001). The Impact of Human Activities and Climate on the Vegetation in the Lake Victoria Region and on the Rwenzori Mountain and its Neighbourhood. Ph.D.Thesis Geology, Makerere University, Faculty Science. 11. Ogwang, B.H. Aanyu M. and Mutayanjulwa E (2002b) Localizing Global Environmental Conventions. Volume II: Opportunities for Integrating Multilateral Conventions in planning processes in Uganda. NEMA. 12. Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) 2004-2009 (2004). Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development, Uganda. 13. State of Environment Report for Uganda, NEMA (1998). CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 68 ANNEX 1. Operational definitions Adaptation Adjustment in natural or human systems, in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities. Climate The prevailing or average weather conditions of a place as determined by the temperature and meteorological change over a period of time. Many factors determine climate, but rainfall and temperature are the most prominent. Climate change Change in climate attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods. Chlorofluorocarbons Very stable, non-reactive and non-poisonous chemical used as coolants in refrigerators, and in air conditioning; also used as aerosol propellants for filling the spaces in foam used for packaging. Coping mechanism Ways and means of minimizing adverse effects of climate change. Disaster A destructive climate-induced event of a magnitude requiring external or extra intervention Ecosystem A self-regulating community of living things in their physical and chemical environment. Forest A large tract of land covered with trees. Land races Dominant fauna and flora established in a given location through ecological evolution and are now the most adapted to the prevailing chemical and physical environment. Mitigation An intervention to reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions or enhance GHG sinks. Phenology A study of natural phenomena that recur periodically. Pleistocene The period, in the earthís history, which lasted from about 2,000,000 years ago to about 10,000 years ago during which much of the northern part of the earth may have been covered with ice. It was during the Pleistocene that the earliest humans are thought to have appeared and hence the beginning of anthropogenic (man-induced) activities. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 69 Synergy A co-operative effort or action that exceeds the sum of individual effort and enhances output. Vulnerability The degree to which a system is susceptible to or unable to cope with adverse effects of climate change, climate variability or climate extremes. Wildlife Undomesticated plants and animals found in their natural environment. CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 70 CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 71 CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 72 CLIMA TIC CHANGE UGANDA NATAIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 73

Uganda CC Costed Implementation Strategy_Final Version for Approval_14_10_2013

Uganda CC Costed Implementation Strategy_Final Version for Approval_14_10_2013

THE REPUBLIC OF UGANDA
MINISTRY OF WATER AND ENVIRONMENT
Uganda National Climate Change Policy
PART II
DRAFT COSTED IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
OF THE NATIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY
14th October 2013
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Table of Contents
Acronyms............................................................................................................................................... iii
1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................................5
1.1 Objective of the Strategy ........................................................................................................5
1.2 Structure of the Strategy Document.......................................................................................5
2. Summary Description of the Strategy Focus...................................................................................6
3. Operationalizing the Policy .............................................................................................................6
3.1 A Road Map.............................................................................................................................6
3.2 Institutional Framework and Resources for a Coordinated Response ...................................8
3.2.1 Summary Overview of Institutional Framework....................................................................8
3.2.2 Resources for Coordination ...................................................................................................9
3.2.3 Communication Strategy .....................................................................................................10
4. Indicative Policy Implementation Costs and Sources of Financing...............................................11
4.1 Policy Implementation Costs in the short to medium term .................................................15
4.2 Policy Implementation Cost for the First Financial Year - 2013/2014 .................................15
5. Detailed Indicative Implementation Strategy...............................................................................23
5.1 Common Policy Priorities Matrix ..........................................................................................23
5.2 Adaptation Strategy Matrix ........................................................................................................32
5.3 Mitigation Strategy Matrix..................................................................................................120
5.4 Monitoring, Detection, Attribution and Prediction Strategy Matrix ..................................151
6. Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Framework...........................................................................154
6.1 Rationale for the M&E Framework.....................................................................................154
6.2 Main Buildings Blocks of the M&E Framework...................................................................154
6.3 Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) System......................................................155
6.3 Tools, Roles and Responsibilities in the Implementation of the M&E Framework ...........156
6.3.1 In Monitoring: ....................................................................................................................156
6.3.2 In Evaluation: .....................................................................................................................158
Annex A: Overall Monitoring and Evaluation Matrix..........................................................................159
Annex B: Estimating Additional Costs for Addressing Climate Change ..............................................162
Annex C: Possible Engineering Adaptation Interventions ..................................................................165
Annex D: Breakdown of Climate Change costs over the short to medium term (5 years).................166
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Acronyms
A Adaptation
ACPC Africa Climate Policy Centre
AF Adaptation Fund
AFD French Development Agency
AfDB African Development Bank
BLs Bilaterals
CCD Climate Change Department
CCU Climate Change Unit
CDM Clean Development Mechanism
CGIAR Consortium of International Agricultural Research Centers
CI Conservation International
CIDA Canadian International Development Agency
CIFs (World Bank) Climate Investment Funds (CTF and SCF)
COMESA Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
CPF Carbon Partnership Facility
CSO Community Service Organization
CTF Clean Technology Fund
CTF (World Bank) Clean Technology Fund
DANIDA Danish International Development Agency
DFID
DFS
Department for International Development for the United Kingdom
District Forest Services
EAC Economic Commission for Africa
EC European Commission
EE Energy Efficiency
EU European Union
EWS Early Warning System
FAO Food and Agricultural Organization
FCPF Forest Carbon Partnership Facility
FDI Foreign Direct Investment
FIP Forest Investment Program
FORMIN
FSSD
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland
Forestry Sector Support Department
FY Financial Year
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GEEREF Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund
GEF Global Environment Facility
GFDRR Global Fund for Disaster Risk Reduction
GIZ German Agency for International Cooperation
ICF International Climate Fund (UK)
ICI International Climate Initiative (Germany)
ICTSD International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development
IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute
IIED International Institute for Environment and Development
IISD International Institute for Sustainable Development
iNGO International NGO
IT Information Technology
IUCN World Conservation Union
KCCA Kampala Capital City Authority
KM Knowledge Management
LDC Least Developed Country
LDCF GEF Least Developed Countries Fund
LULUCF Land use, land-use change and forestry
M Mitigation
M&E
MAAIF
Monitoring and Evaluation
Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries
MDGAF (Spanish) Millennium Development Goal Achievement Fund
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MFI Multilateral Financial Institution
MLOs Multilateral Organizations
MoES Ministry of Education and Sports
MoFPED
MoLHUD
Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development
MoLG Ministry of Local Government
MoTIC Ministry of Trade, Industry and Cooperatives
MoWT Ministry of Works and Transport
MRV Monitoring, Reporting and Verification
MWE Ministry of Water and Environment
NAFIRI
NaFORRI
National Fisheries Research Institute
National Forestry Resources Research Institute
NCCC National Climate Change Commission
NDP
NEMA
National Development Plan
National Environment Management Authority
NGO
NFA
NFC
Non-Government Organization
National Forestry Authority
Nyabyeya Forestry College
NPA National Planning Authority
ODI Overseas Development Institute
PES Payment for ecosystem services
PCE Policy Committee on Environment
PMF Performance Measurement Framework
PPCR (World Bank) Pilot Project for Climate Resilience
RE Renewable Energy
REDD Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation
SCCF Special Climate Change Fund
SCF Strategic Climate Fund
SDC Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
SIDA Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
SME Small and medium-sized enterprises
SREP Scaling-Up Renewable Energy Program for Low Income Countries
SREP Scaling up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries Programme
TA Technical Assistance
TF Trust Fund
TNC The Nature Conservancy
UN United Nations
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNECA United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
US$ United States dollar
USAID
UWA
United Stated Agency for International Development
Uganda Wildlife Authority
WB World Bank
WOTR Water Organization Trust
WRI World Resources Institute
WWF World Wildlife Fund
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1. Introduction
The strategy will be considered in conjunction with the National Climate Change Policy developed
over the first half of 2012 through an extensive consultative process and finalised in July 2012,
following integration of the feedback received from the national consultation workshop.
The strategy is in its final form, building on the results of extensive consultations held on a series of
previous drafts with key sector ministries and stakeholders that will be involved in its
implementation (including civil society and private sector; sector ministries, departments and
agencies; the Climate Change Unit [CCU]; the Permanent Secretaries forum; and the multistakeholder
Technical Working Group set up for the development of the National Climate Change
Policy and its draft costed implementation strategy). The feedback received has been integrated as
appropriate. This final draft of the strategy was presented and validated at a national consultation
workshop, held 13 December 2012.
1.1 Objective of the Strategy
This draft costed strategy complements the National Climate Change Policy and offers a way towards
its operationalization. It is essentially aimed at the following inter-related objectives, as outlined in
the policy:
 To provide for a more detailed action plan/road map for the implementation of the National
Climate Change Policy
 To provide phased indicative climate change programmes for the priority areas under the policy
 To highlight the roles and responsibilities of the various stakeholders in the implementation of
these programming priorities
 To provide indicative costing for these programmes
 To indicate in a more detailed manner potential sources of funding and financial tools to be
tapped for the implementation of the policy, and to act as a tool to leverage such funding
 To provide a solid basis for the monitoring, reporting and evaluation of the policy
implementation process
 To provide examples of prototype infrastructure designs for key sectors to be impacted by
climate change, such as transport and works
1.2 Structure of the Strategy Document
The strategy is structured around the following sub-sections to respond to these objectives. It begins
with a summary introduction to the main focus of the strategy. A second section presents the next
steps in operationalizing the National Climate Change Policy in the form of an indicative road map to
assist with the policy implementation. As a first step in the various sectors, it also presents an
overview of the institutional set up for policy implementation and the communication strategy for
the dissemination of the policy and strategy. This is followed by a discussion of the cost estimates
associated with the implementation of the policy and some of the potential financing sources, with a
breakdown estimated for priority short-term actions (1 to 5 years), as well as longer-term actions.
The detailed implementation strategy itself is then presented, in the form of a table, covering
common policy priorities, as well as policy priorities specifically aimed at addressing mitigation,
adaptation, or monitoring, detection, attribution and prediction challenges. The last section of the
document then introduces the monitoring and evaluation framework for the implementation of the
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policy and strategy, which is detailed in table form in annex A of the document. Annex B describes
the methodology used for additional cost estimates, while Annex C presents examples of prototype
infrastructure designs for key sectors.
2. Summary Description of the Strategy Focus
The focus of the strategy is fully in line with the main policy priorities and strategic areas of
intervention already identified as priorities in the National Climate Change Policy. For the sake of
brevity, these are not repeated in this section. Suffice it to say that the strategy details potential
results (outcomes) expected for each strategic area of intervention already identified under the
policy. It also suggests a work programme under each of these outcomes in the form of a series of
proposed output-level results to be achieved to realise these outcomes. Lead agencies and partners
in implementation are provisionally identified for each output. Prioritisation is proposed for each
output under a short- (1 to 5 years), medium- (6 to 10 years) and long-term (10 - 15 years) time
frame. Broad cost estimates per expected outcome are provided, as well as a general indication of
the various financial management tools and sources of funding that could be tapped in the process.
It is believed that this can provide a concrete basis for the various stakeholders to be involved in the
National Climate Change Policy implementation, to embark on the next steps in doing their own
internal planning to mainstream and address the climate change policy priorities identified by the
policy based on this indicative work plan for policy implementation. A discussion of these first steps
in moving forward with policy implementation by these various actors is provided in the section
below.
To conclude, it should be noted that the structure of the detailed strategy, building on expected
outcomes and outputs to be achieved, provides a good basis for each lead ministry, department and
agency to develop its performance measurement framework for policy implementation, through the
further development of agency- and department-specific performance and progress indicators in
policy implementation, in addition to future activity reporting, once this indicative programme of
action is tailored by each agency to its own specific implementation and funding realities.
3. Operationalizing the Policy
3.1 A Road Map
While the detailed implementation strategy presented in section five below provides guidance on
how to tackle the policy priorities and strategic intervention areas over the first five years of
implementation and then beyond, some basic building blocks need to be put in place in the various
ministries, departments and agencies concerned with policy implementation in the very short term,
to allow them to move forward with the other policy implementation partners on this common work
agenda.
In that respect, in the next 12 months, each lead ministry, department and agency will have some
basic management tasks to undertake to trigger the actual policy implementation, given the very
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cross-sectoral nature of the policy and strategy. While taking a point of departure for policy
implementation in the existing sector policies and strategies that already guide the work of the
various sectors, some basic capacities are required of each institution to tailor the guidance provided
in the costed implementation strategy to its specific realities.
Some start-up funding (see section 4.2 and Table 6) will be required to address the following
institutional/management main steps of the road map to policy implementation:
 Awareness raising, information gathering and identification of focal point (first six months).
The policy and strategy development process has revealed that the level of knowledge on
climate change and its impacts in specific sectors remains very low in Uganda. A first step in the
process of policy implementation relates to the need to raise this awareness and take stock of
existing sector specific climate change knowledge in a targeted manner, among decision makers
and staff who have a critical role in management and planning in the priority strategic areas of
interventions identified under the policy. Specific short-term work programmes for such
awareness raising and stock taking will be developed in conjunction with the sectoral focal
points to be identified in each concerned ministry, department and agency. It should be
understood upfront that awareness raising on climate change and its challenges is a long-term
process that is in fact pervasive to the whole strategy over its lifetime, and covers a much
broader array of stakeholders. It therefore goes beyond this initial and very targeted awareness
raising and stock taking task referred to as an early step under this road map.
 Building knowledge and capacity for climate change accounting, budgeting and work planning
(month four to eight). Once this basic institutional structure is implemented and awareness is
raised on climate change, its impacts and the measures foreseen to tackle it in the concerned
sectors, some targeted capacity building with the same decision makers, sector budget officers
and planners can be undertaken so that they are trained and coached on how to analyse data
and revise their annual budgeting, accounting and work planning to tailor the climate change
indicative work programme provided by the climate change strategy to their own sectoral work
plans, on an annual basis. The aim should be to have this capacity building completed so that it
can culminate into up-to-date, mainstreamed climate change planning in the 2013/2014 budget
cycle of all concerned agencies, with progress reporting on policy implementation to follow by
quarter afterwards. This means this work planning should be done in close conjunction with
potential funders identified in the strategy to develop work planning that is as concrete and
close to reality as possible. In that respect, efforts should be made to coordinate the work on
accounting, financing and budgeting with the Department for International Development (DFID)-
sponsored Overseas Development Institute (ODI) initiative already working on this issue in
Uganda. Similarly, such coordination should take place with the work already planned and
budgeted for on mainstreaming climate change in various sectors, such as under DANIDA
funding for the Ministry of Water and Environment (MWE). Such budgets and work plans should
be reviewed and quality controlled by the relevant national budget and planning authorities
before final approval. This is a process in which the Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic
Development (MoFED), the National Planning Authority (NPA) and the Ministry of Local
Government (MoLG) will have key roles to play.
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 Developing an accompanying performance measurement framework (PMF) (in parallel to
work planning efforts). Each lead ministry, department and agency should work closely with the
National Climate Change Commission (NCCC) to devise a department-specific performance
measurement framework to follow the progress in implementing its specific programmatic
climate change policy and strategy efforts. This should be developed in conjunction with the
work planning and budgeting, building on the indicative outcomes and outputs provided under
the detailed climate change implementation strategy, and should be integrated with the ongoing
Medium-Term Expenditure Framework process at the national level and district level, as
well as the district conditional grant system. Such performance measurement frameworks will
identify a set of easy-to-measure performance indicators for each outcome and output to be
achieved, with set targets, and will detail the means of verification and sources of data to inform
progress on these indicator values. This department-specific PMF will then structure the
progress reporting of each lead agency on its policy implementation work at the national level.
The NCCC will itself be tasked with developing the overarching PMF for policy implementation,
building on the department-specific PMFs.
The figure below presents in schematic the various first steps of this road map to policy
implementation, leading down the road to implementation of short-term priorities budgeted for
and monitoring of progress in implementation.
Figure 1: Road map to early policy implementation
In
3.2 Institutional Framework and Resources for a Coordinated
Response
3.2.1 Summary Overview of Institutional Framework
The institutional framework for the implementation of the policy and the key roles and
responsibilities associated with the various stakeholders through this implementation process have
already been described in the main policy document (Part I) and will therefore not be repeated here
in detail. As a reminder, the main actors at the national level include the following:
 The Focal Climate Change Institution prescribed in the main policy; the National Climate
Change Commission (NCCC)
 The two multi-stakeholder coordination mechanisms prescribed by the policy, namely:
o The Policy Committee on Environment (PCE) at the executive level, chaired by the
Prime Minister
o The National Climate Change Advisory Committee at the operational level
 Other key coordinating ministries and authorities, namely:
Awareness
raising,
information
gathering and
identification of
focal point
Building
knowledge and
capacity for
climate change
budgeting,
accounting and
work planning
Developing a
performance
measurement
framework
(PMF)
Implementing
tailored shortterm
priorities
building on
guidance from
strategy
Reporting on
progress in
policy
implementation
using PMF
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o The Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development
o The National Planning Authority
o The Ministry of Local Government
 Other ministries, departments and agencies with a role in implementation
A similar management arrangement is mirrored at the district level:
 The climate change focal point anchored within the Natural Resources Department of the
District Local Government
 The existing Environment Committee, as a mechanism to ensure cross-sectoral coordination
 All district-level departments with a role in implementation
It is of course understood that through the multi-stakeholder structures, at both the national and
district levels, civil society and the private sector also have crucial roles to play as actors in the policy
implementation process. In addition to their participation in those coordination structures, these
actors are also involved in the implementation process, as is evidenced by a number of outcomes
and outputs proposed under the detailed indicative implementation strategy (see Section 5 of this
document). It is also understood that all individual citizens in Uganda, through their own awareness
and voluntary approach to behavioural change and resource use, are the ultimate implementers of a
number of the priorities under this policy. A number of outcomes and impacts under the policy
indeed tackle directly or indirectly the need to raise their awareness and knowledge, and to provide
incentive to bring about such behavioural change.
3.2.2 Resources for Coordination
In view of the institutional structure described above, in addition to indicative costs for the
implementation of the road map (referred to earlier), and to support priority actions under the
implementation strategy (discussed in Section 4), the coordination function must also be adequately
resourced, to ensure a proactive and effective approach to the policy implementation process. The
main elements of the coordination cost estimates include in particular:
 Putting in place a legal framework to guide the coordination, direction and overall
implementation of the NCCP and its implementation strategy;
 Upgrading of the CCU to a National Climate Change Commission (NCCC) and supporting the
various coordination functions of the NCCC for policy implementation,
 Strengthening the operations of Policy Committee on Environment (PCE) to guide climate
change policy implementation,
 Operationalizing the National Climate Change Advisory Committee,
 Supporting the district-level focal point structure through basic capacity strengthening,
 Developing and implementing the communication strategy on the NCCP.
This costing is broken down in Table 1 according to these elements, for the short and medium term.
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Table 1: Short and Medium Term Cost Estimate for the Coordination Function
Coordination function/Task Total Cost
(US$)
Short term (US$)
(0-5 years)
Medium Term (US$)
(6-10 years)
CCU upgrade to a National Climate
Change Commission (NCCC)
structure and coordination functions
for CC Policy Implementation
(developing both legal and
institutional framework)
17,500,000 10,000,000 7,500,000
Operation of the Policy Committee
on Environment (PCE) to handle
climate change matters
20,000 20,000 -
Operation of the NCCAC 60,000 60,000 -
District level focal point structure 15,000,000 7,500,000 7,500,000
Communication Strategy on policy 2,500,000 2500000 -
Total Coordination costs 35,080,000 20,080,000 15,000,000
3.2.3 Communication Strategy
Notwithstanding the extensive consultation process that took place and led to both the policy and
this implementation strategy, raising awareness among a wide array of stakeholders nationally
around these two key documents, their thrust and the roles and responsibilities of the different
actors involved in the implementation of the policy is paramount to its visibility. This awareness
raising is vital for building the momentum required to ensure the policy’s implementation, and
ultimately to ensure the success of this major policy endeavour. It is also necessary to raise the
understanding and knowledge around climate change issues and solutions at the national level, and
the policy’s profile at both the national and international levels, in order to attract international
partners in support of its implementation.
There is therefore a need to develop of communication strategy to address these various aspects.
The key principles driving the development of this communication strategy must include:
 Community ownership of the policy and participation in its implementation
 Language and cultural relevance of the policy
 Fostering learning and sharing among networks of people with similar concerns
 Supporting public debate on climate change issues
 Involving local administration and community leaders
 Gathering and systematizing available data and generating additional information to ensure
an adequate analysis including disaggregated data for marginalized groups
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 Promoting knowledge on the use of appropriate technology that can be owned and
controlled by the people to meet their real needs
In light of these principles, the following measures will be pursued as first steps towards effective
communication on climate change issues in the months following the adoption of the Policy:
 Conducting a communication needs assessment
 Improving access to climate change information
 Disseminating credible and reliable climate change information and research findings
 Developing a comprehensive communication plan
Out of the process of developing the communication needs assessment and the comprehensive
communication plan, concrete activities will be identified. Some of these early activities are likely to
include:
At the national level:
 Producing a popular or “layperson’s” version of the policy and strategy intended for a
general audience
 Translating this version into local languages and disseminating it nationally and locally to the
general population through various means,
 Encouraging knowledge exchange and debate on climate change issues and the policy
implementation through the use of various means such as workshops, meetings, audio,
video, print and electronic mass and social media
 Developing posters and pamphlets (in multiple languages) summarising the main thrust of
the policy
At the international level:
 Showcasing the policy and its implementation strategy in various regional and international
forums
 Preparing an attractive policy and strategy summary information package, information
booths and a presentation for international events and workshops, such as regional
meetings, convention meetings, etc.
These activities will of course have to be expanded upon, to address all key guiding principles and
aspects of the communication plan yet to be developed. The examples above are only focussed on
some of the very first steps in that respect to foster further buy-in for the implementation of the
policy.
4. Indicative Policy Implementation Costs and Sources of Financing
Uganda’s need for climate financing as an addition to the ordinary development financing is imposed
by the fact that climate change is both a developmental and an environmental challenge. The
adverse effects of climate change pose a great risk to lives and livelihoods of people, particularly the
poor and the vulnerable, as these effects can even reverse economic progress already made. It is for
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this reason that adequate and sustainable financing needs to be mobilised for the country to move
forward along a sustainable and resilient development path. The estimates provided in this strategy
are considered minimal compared to the apparent needs of the country. The estimates provide a
critical starting point that will open the door to more accurately establishing the real needs in the
unpredictable environment of climate change.
Some of the strategic interventions identified in this strategy are already being addressed to some
extent through existing development interventions with funding from the government, as well as
development partners. In order to effectively address the identified strategic interventions,
substantial amounts of additional funding will be required in the long term. This is largely due to the
fact that, even in the absence of climate change impacts, there are still gaps that need to be filled in
order for the country to get on the path to sustainable and resilient development. The additional
funds become more critical because, in the presence of climate change, the problems faced by the
country are exacerbated and therefore additional costs will have to be incurred in order for the
country to follow a resilient development path. The major means through which the additional funds
may be obtained include the following:
 National budget. The mainstreaming and integration of climate change issues into the national
development agenda means that national budget allocations are to support the implementation
of the climate change policy priorities that are already part of the national development agenda.
These national budget allocations will be used to leverage the finances originating from external
sources to cover the additionality related to climate change.
 Dedicated funding from bilateral and multilateral sources. The available sources of external
funding for adaptation and mitigation are diverse and expanding, and include for instance: the
World Bank‘s Carbon Funds and Facilities; the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) of the
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)/Global Environment
Facility (GEF); the United Nation’s Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest
Degradation (UN-REDD) Programme; Climate Investment Funds (CIFs) of the World Bank; the
Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) of the UNFCCC/GEF; the Adaptation Fund (AF) of the Kyoto
Protocol (with secretariat at GEF and World Bank acting as Trustee); the Green Climate Fund;
and the Scaling up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries Programme (SREP). In addition to
those, numerous bilateral development partners have either set up their own climate change
bilateral funds and programmes, and/or are mainstreaming climate change support in their
development cooperation programmes.
 Private sector finance and foreign direct investments (FDIs). Private sector players (both
domestic and international) can provide investment mainly in the energy and forestry sectors.
Private sector sources may be supplemented by public–private partnership funds and grants or
soft loans from multilateral financial institutions (MFIs).
 Carbon markets. Market-based mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
and the REDD+ Mechanism, as well as voluntary carbon market schemes, can provide funds for
mitigation.
 Payment for ecosystem services (PES). PES, also known as payments for environmental services
(or benefits), is the practice of offering incentives to farmers or landowners in exchange for
managing their land to provide some sort of ecological service. PES programmes promote the
conservation of natural resources in the marketplace. This can include, for instance, the
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integration of various innovative financing and payment schemes through appropriate taxes,
levies and tariffs.
Table 2 on the next page summarises some of the financing sources and mechanisms.
Table 2: Sample of Finance Mechanisms and Descriptions
Finance Mechanism [Multilateral/
Bilateral/ Other]
[Adaptation/Mitigation – A/M]: Description
Climate Investment Funds (CIFs)
[MLO: World Bank]
A/M: The CIF includes the Clean Technology Fund (CTF) – which supports the rapid deployment of
low-carbon technologies - and Strategic Climate Fund (CTF), which includes the
 Scaling up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries Programme (SREP) –
supporting investments in a small number of low income countries for energy
efficiency, renewable energy and access to modern sustainable energy;
 Forest Investment Program (FIP) – which seeks to reduce emissions and up-scale
investment for reduced deforestation and forest degradation and to promote
sustainable forest management, and; finally, the
 Pilot Project for Climate Resilience (PPCR) – which aimed to integrate climate
resilience in national development planning consistent with poverty reduction and
sustainable development goals.
Forest Carbon Partnership Facility
(FCPF) [MLO: World Bank]
M: The fund assists developing countries in their efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation
and forest degradation, and support forest carbon stock conservation and sustainable
management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+). The FCPF is comprised
of a Readiness Fund, which aids countries in setting up national systems and arrangements for
REDD+, and a Carbon Fund, which is to operationalize the REDD+ programs and deliver results in
the form of social and environmental benefits, as well as emissions reductions to financial
contributors.
Global Environment Facility (GEF)
[MLO: GEF Secretariat, World Bank
as Trustee]
A/M: The GEF Trust Fund supports energy efficiency and renewable energy mitigation projects, as
well as enabling activities for technical assistance and mainstreaming climate change. The GEF
also includes the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) - which funds the preparation and
implementation of the National Adaptation Plans of Action (NAPAs) - and the Special Climate
Change Fund (SCCF) - which supports projects in adaptation; technology transfer and capacity
building; energy, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management; and economic
diversification.
International Climate Initiative (ICI)
[BL/Private Sector: BMU/German
government]
A/M: ICI funds mitigation, adaptation and climate change projects with biodiversity co-benefits,
and places emphasis on climate change projects that catalyse other funding streams, especially
from the private sector. For example, the fund’s African Carbon Asset Development Facility
(ACAD) seeks to improve financial institutions’ ability to identify, appraise, and transact viable
carbon opportunities.
International Climate Fund (ICF)
[BL/Private Sector: DfID/UK
Government]
A/M: The fund supports low carbon growth and adaptation in developing countries by
demonstrating low-carbon growth, supporting countries with international negotiations, and
capitalizing on opportunities for private sector partnerships, innovation, and sustainable
development. In parallel the fund seeks to mainstream climate change into the UK’s
development aid programming.
ClimDev Africa Programme Special
Fund (CDSF) [MLO: UNECA, AUC,
and AfDb]
A/M: The fund provides assistance for the generation and wide dissemination of climate change
information in Africa; capacity enhancement of policy makers and policy support institutions for
integrating climate change into development programs; and implementing pilot adaptation
practices.
Adaptation Fund (AF) [MLO: GEF as
Secretariat, World Bank as Trustee,
portion of funding from CDM CERs]
A: Established under the Kyoto Protocol, the AF is financed with a share of certified emissions
reductions from CDM projects and a limited set of other donors. It funds adaptation activities for
communities, countries and sectors, and implementing agencies include national entities
approved by the AF Board.
(Proposed) Green Climate Fund
(GCF) under the UNFCCC [n/a]
A/M: The fund began with a Fast Track commitment of US$ 7.5 billion by the European Union
(EU). The GCF Board is considering the design of the fund in terms of governance structure,
procedures, policies, funding mechanisms, potential safeguards and other key elements.
Africa Enterprise Challenge Fund
(AECF): Renewable Energy and
Adaptation to Climate Technologies
(REACT) [MLO/Private Sector: UK
Aid, DANIDA, AusAID, IFAD, MNFA]
A/M: REACT is a competitive funding window that provides grants, co-financing, loads and risk
management to encourage private sector companies to compete for investment support for their
new and innovative business ideas in low-cost, clean energy for rural households and businesses,
products and services for rural farmers, and improving access to climate-relevant funding.
Common Market for Eastern and
Southern Africa (COMESA) Carbon
Fund [MLO/Private Sector: Funded
by Norway, Britain, EC]
A/M: Working in the free-trade area established by the East Africa Community (EAC) and
Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), the fund seeks to attract investors to purchase
carbon offsets from agricultural, forestry and land-use projects, and is suitable for project
developments that are or will be registered under the CDM.
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Adequate financial resources are required in order to undertake climate change adaptation and
mitigation. The New Delhi Work programme recognizes the need for adequate financial and
technical resources to ensure effective implementation of activities of Article 6 of UNFCCC. Since
Uganda contributes very little to greenhouse gas emissions but is highly vulnerable to climate
change impacts, more resources are allocated to adapting to climate impacts in the short and
medium term. In the long-term, the country will need to allocate more resources to mitigation
because with the high level of development, population growth and oil extraction and use, green
house gas emissions will be higher.
During the preparation of the NCCP and this implementation strategy, models and secondary data
cost estimates for climate change were used to estimate the cost of implementing the NCCP. It is
estimated that Uganda will require US$ 3.9 billion (approximately US$ 258 million per annum) over
the next 15+ years to address climate change concerns in addition to the existing interventions. This
represents approximately 1.6% of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per annum over the
next fifteen years (GDP at market prices as of 2011). Of this, adaptation costs will account for
approximately 1.2% and mitigation costs for 0.4% of the annual GDP. The summary estimates of
these costs, by sectors of intervention under the policy, are presented in Table 3 below. It should be
noted up front that a significant share of these estimated financial resource needs will be required
and channelled at the local level, where a majority of the priority actions under this strategy will
materialize, following the adopted policy principle of community-based actions to address climate
change and its impacts.
The adaptation estimates are based on the methods presented by World Bank (2006)1
and Stern
Review (2006)2
. Several other estimates of the costs of climate change adaptation in developing
countries in the literature have adopted this methodology3
(Annex B). The estimates are within the
range of the average projected adaptation estimates for the Sub-Saharan Africa countries (at 1.7%–
1.8% of their GDP per annum)4
and are also lower than the World Bank (2006) estimates range of 2-
10% of Gross Domestic Investment (GDI). The mitigation costs were estimated using the Integrated
Assessment models (IAMs) - the FUND and PAGE models which estimate that the mitigation costs
will range between 1.5 -10% of annual GDP5
(Annex B). Again Uganda’s mitigation costs are below
these averages. However, it should be noted that for some interventions, there may be no clear
divide between climate-change finances that address purely adaptation or mitigation concerns. This
is because some adaptation and mitigation measures are mutually reinforcing and deliver cobenefits
for both adaptation and mitigation. For example adaptation measures in sustainable land
management can mitigate climate change if they involve forestry.

1 World Bank (2006), Investment Framework for Clean Energy and Development. World Bank, Washington,
DC. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DEVCOMMINT/Documentation/20890696/DC2006-0002(E)-
CleanEnergy.pdf
2
Stern, N. (2006), “The Economics of Climate Change”, The Stern Review, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge.
3
Brian Lipinski, Heather Mcgray (2010). Summary of studies estimating the costs of climate change adaptation
in Developing Word.
4
African Development Bank, 2012. The Cost of Adaptation to Climate Change in Africa
5
Stockholm Environment Institute (2009). Adapcost briefing paper. www.afdb.org/.../Africa.
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The estimation of the climate change intervention costs was based on Uganda’s National
Development Plan (NDP) - 2010/2011; projected GDP figures for 2011/2012 – 2014/2015 taking into
account Projected Domestic Funding and projected donor funding as a percentage of GDP. The rest
of the variables were projected (see methodology Annex B). The costing methodology was also
informed by different authoritative sources, including the World Bank studies. These are only
indicative of the direction the country needs to take in implementing the climate change policy. It is
likely that, owing to the unpredictability of the impacts of climate change and the existing gaps in
financial data for the country’s climate change needs, the required financial input might be higher
than projected if the country is to move on a sustainable climate-resilient development path.
Attaining climate-proof and climate-resilient development requires much more than poverty
alleviation. Apart from the existing deficits in addressing the poverty problem, the country faces
some unpredictable future impacts as a result of changes in climate that cannot yet be precisely
predicted. Uganda is already undertaking activities that address some of the impacts of climate
change. Activities that are already being undertaken have already been taken care of and are
therefore not included in these estimates.
Monetary estimation of costs for climate change response in Uganda is justifiable on the grounds
that monetary costs, unlike other indicators, can be aggregated for comparison purposes (they
provide a standard unit for comparison across different sectors). Monetary costs can also serve as an
indicator in the cost–benefit analysis of different adaptation and mitigation activities. However, this
information should be used in conjunction with other complementary indicators.
4.1 Policy Implementation Costs in the short to medium term
Implementing the strategic interventions in the NCCP in the short to medium term would require
approximately US$ 905 million (see Table 3). Table 4 provides a summary of the breakdown of the
climate change intervention costs from FY 2013/2014 to FY 2017/2018 for each sector
sector/priority indicated this implementation strategy. In addition, Table 5 provides a summary
breakdown of the costs per ministry over the period to enable the Ministries, Departments and
Agencies (MDA) become aware and commit them to undertake the climate change interventions in
this NCCP implementation strategy. The detailed breakdown of the intervention costs per ministry
over the period is provided in Annex D. The estimation of the climate change intervention costs for
this period was based on secondary data estimates for sectors indicated in the Medium Term
Expenditure Framework (MTEF) under the National Development Plan 2010/2011 – 2014/2015;
from which ratios were computed and used in the computation of costs for climate change
interventions over the period 2013/2014 – 2017/2018.
4.2 Policy Implementation Cost for the First Financial Year -
2013/2014
The road map to implementation of the NCCP (Section 3.1 of this document) indicates that in the
first in the first year (current financial year 2013/2014) each lead MDA has some basic management
tasks to undertake to trigger the policy implementation. To that end, the GOU will start the process
of developing the institutional framework for climate change governance at national level. In
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addition, each lead institution (MDA) will undertake the following steps of the road map to policy
implementation:
(i) Awareness raising, information gathering and identification of climate change focal point
(ii) Building knowledge and capacity for climate change accounting, budgeting and work
planning
(iii) Developing an Performance measurement framework (PMF)
(iv) Implementing all sectoral projects and activities that have a climate change component
or that need to be ‘climate proofed’ in the FY 2013/2014
The realization of the bold ambitions identified in the NCCP and its implementation strategy needs
financial resources to flag off implementation in the first year. Uganda will need to access resources
from both public and private sources and from both within Uganda and international sources.
However, the GoU is duty bound kick start the implementation by providing funding for the first
year; and this a critical basis for mobilization of resources from other sources (especially
international climate change finance) for subsequent years. Approval and kick starting
implementation of the NCCP will: (i) enable Uganda’s public sector to mobilize domestic and
international climate finance; and (ii) improve the ‘investment climate for climate investment’ and
this will increase the flows of, in particular, private sector capital towards mitigation investment,
from both Ugandan and international investors.
Table 4 indicated that cost of implementing climate change interventions for FY 2013/2014 (first
Financial Year) is US$ 126 million of which: the adaptation cost is US$ 93 million and mitigation cost
is US$ 25.9 million. The other costs are common policy priorities (US$ 3.6 million); climate change
monitoring and detection (US$ 710,301) and coordination costs (US$ 2.9 million). It is estimated that
the GoU will provide some start-up funding of up to the tune 60% of the total costs estimated for FY
2013/2014 (US$ 75.6 million) kick start the road map to policy implementation. In the subsequent
years the GoU will then mobilise and access bilateral and international climate change finance. By
doing this, the proportion of funds the GoU will have it provides for climate change intervention will
reduce to about 30% of the total cost by 2017/2018. However, GoU will not provide funding to CSOs
to implement climate change interventions because they are expected to mobilise their own
financial resources. Table 6 summarises the funds to be provided by GoU to the different MDA to
implement climate change interventions in the FY 2013/2014. All department and agencies in the
ministry will have to work together to allocate the climate change funds depending on the
interventions they will prioritise.
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. Table 3: Summary of Costs (Additional) for Implementing the National Climate Change Policy
Sector/Priority Total Additional Costs
(US$) (15 years)
Time Frame
Short- term (US$)
(1-5 years)
Medium-term (US$)
(6-10 years)
Long-term (US$)
(11-15 years)
A. COMMON POLICY (CROSS CUTTING) PRIORITIES
TOTAL COSTS COMMON POLICY PRIORITIES 89,486,712 21,471,132 31,892,896 36,122,684
B. ADAPTATION
1 Agriculture 297,097,466 98,035,920 112,848,300 86,213,246
2 Water 202,912,829 36,648,207 67,198,692 99,065,930
3 Fisheries 163,125,744 17,402,140 68,962,850 76,760,754
4 Transport and Works 1,053,904,000 211,512,000 376,545,000 465,847,000
5 Forestry 24,286,880 2,463,745 12,599,755 9,223,380
6 Wetlands 2,303,463 1,539,841 763,622 -
7 Biodiversity 6,349,130 1,847,809 3,818,108 683,213
8 Health 732,694,136 128,262,303 279,027,742 325,404,091
9 Energy 382,441,000 160,314,000 131,592,000 90,535,000
10 Wildlife and Tourism 24,419,000 5,684,500 8,672,500 10,062,000
11 Human Settlements 13,637,000 3,181,000 4,853,000 5,603,000
12 Disaster Risk Management 12,144,075 2,928,806 4,230,843 4,984,426
13 Vulnerable Groups 3,626,076 1,269,149 1,692,337 664,590
TOTAL: ADAPTATION COSTS 2,918,940,799 671,089,420 1,072,804,749 1,175,046,630
C. MITIGATION
1 LULUCF – Forestry 36,832,976 1,739,250 15,022,615 20,071,111
2 LULUCUF - Landuse and Landuse Change 2,727,000 636,000 970,500 1,120,500
3 LULUCF- REDD 36,404,967 10,203,600 13,656,923 12,544,444
4 Wetlands 18,561,576 5,124,990 5,408,142 8,028,444
5 Agriculture 141,912,000 26,568,000 50,155,000 65,189,000
6 Energy Generation 25,674,062 8,665,541 10,404,791 6,603,729
7 Energy Utilization 108,281,485 46,793,918 35,498,697 25,988,871
8 Industry 9,747,000 2,273,500 3,469,000 4,004,500
9 Transport 421,562,000 84,605,000 150,618,000 186,339,000
10 Waste Management 2,727,000 636,000 970,500 1,120,500
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TOTAL: MITIGATION COSTS 804,430,066 187,245,799 286,174,168 331,010,099
D. MONITORING AND DETECTION
TOTAL: MONITORING AND DETECTION 19,620,179 5,364,558 5,811,144 8,444,477
E. CLIMATE CHANGE COORDINATION
TOTAL: CLIMATE CHANGE COORDINATION COSTS 35,080,000 20,080,000 15,000,000 -
GRAND TOTAL: ALL COSTS 3,867,557,756 905,250,908 1,411,682,957 1,550,623,890
Table 4: Summary of Costs (Additional) for implementing the National Climate Change Policy in the Short to Medium Term (1-5 years)
Sector/Priority
Total Costs
Short to Medium Term
(US$) - 1-5 years
Year 1
2013/2014
Year 2
2014/2015
Year 3
2015/2016
Year 4
2016/2017
Year 5
2017/2018
A: COSTS COMMON POLICY PRIORITIES 21,471,132.00 3,161,941.80 3,690,887.32 4,245,906.13 4,883,982.48 5,488,414.28
B. ADAPTATION
1 Agriculture 98,035,920.00 13,314,915.15 15,998,670.07 19,059,164.94 22,901,600.34 26,761,569.50
2 Water 36,648,207.00 4,852,452.82 6,040,689.25 7,039,199.58 8,675,247.12 10,040,618.23
3 Fisheries 17,402,140.00 2,363,501.23 2,839,888.65 3,383,150.35 4,065,212.58 4,750,387.20
4 Transport and Works 211,512,000.00 29,967,556.16 36,011,647.96 41,356,133.86 48,379,787.14 55,796,874.89
5 Forestry 2,463,745.00 326,215.31 406,096.75 473,223.50 583,209.89 674,999.54
6 Wetlands 1,539,841.00 203,884.62 253,810.53 295,764.76 364,506.27 421,874.82
7 Biodiversity 1,847,809.00 244,661.52 304,572.61 354,917.67 437,407.48 506,249.73
8 Health 128,262,303.00 18,201,193.96 21,713,087.59 25,158,149.80 29,299,026.33 33,890,845.32
9 Energy 160,314,000.00 21,806,267.89 26,917,913.02 31,043,779.19 37,229,771.70 43,316,268.19
10 Wildlife and Tourism 5,684,500.00 906,038.41 1,011,305.10 1,148,191.26 1,261,239.50 1,357,725.74
11 Human Settlements 3,181,000.00 507,013.72 565,929.81 642,503.45 705,784.61 759,768.41
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 19
12 Disaster Risk Management 2,928,806.00 466,813.76 521,046.26 591,586.17 649,823.34 699,536.46
13 Vulnerable Groups 1,269,149.00 202,285.92 225,786.67 256,353.95 281,590.05 303,132.40
TOTAL ADAPTATION COSTS 671,089,420.00 93,362,800.49 112,810,444.26 130,802,118.49 154,834,206.33 179,279,850.43
C. MITIGATION - - - -
1 LULUCF – Forestry 1,739,250.00 230,287.63 286,678.93 334,066.22 411,709.73 476,507.49
2 LULUCUF - Landuse and Landuse Change 636,000.00 84,210.40 104,831.28 122,159.62 150,551.90 174,246.81
3 LULUCF- REDD 10,203,600.00 1,351,020.74 1,681,849.72 1,959,855.14 2,415,363.77 2,795,510.63
4 Wetlands 5,124,990.00 678,580.87 844,747.25 984,381.79 1,213,171.35 1,404,108.75
5 Agriculture 26,568,000.00 3,608,378.09 4,335,682.95 5,165,085.35 6,206,395.76 7,252,457.86
6 Energy Generation 8,665,541.00 1,178,706.22 1,455,008.79 1,678,026.51 2,012,401.37 2,341,398.12
7 Energy Utilization 46,793,918.00 6,365,013.11 7,857,046.89 9,061,342.48 10,866,966.60 12,643,548.92
8 Industry 2,273,500.00 362,367.55 404,468.67 459,215.91 504,429.24 543,018.64
9 Transport 84,605,000.00 11,987,050.80 14,404,693.23 16,542,492.65 19,351,960.60 22,318,802.72
10 Waste Management 636,000.00 84,210.40 104,831.28 122,159.62 150,551.90 174,246.81
TOTAL MITIGATION COSTS 187,245,799.00 25,929,825.79 31,479,838.98 36,428,785.27 43,283,502.22 50,123,846.75
C: MONITORING AND DETECTION COSTS 5,364,558.00 710,301.18 884,235.01 1,030,396.78 1,269,881.12 1,469,743.90
E: CLIMATE CHANGE COORDINATION COSTS 20,080,000.00 2,957,077.03 3,451,751.75 3,970,810.44 4,567,545.30 5,132,815.48
GRAND TOTAL: ALL COSTS 905,250,909.00 126,121,946.28 152,317,157.32 176,478,017.11 208,839,117.45 241,494,670.84
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 20
Table 5: Summary of Climate Change Costs for MDA and actors in the short to medium term (five year period)
Ministry/Sector
Indicated
Agencies under
the Ministry 2013/2014 2014/2015 2015/2016 2016/2017 2017/2018 Total
Ministry of Water and Environment
(MWE)
NEMA, NFA,
NWSC, Uganda
Meteorology
Authority 20,960,615.36 25,331,475.13 29,357,611.01 34,872,365.27 40,179,235.53 150,701,302.30
Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry
and Fisheries (MAAIF)
NARO, NAFFRI,
NAADS
9,054,823.59 10,912,092.48 12,975,495.92 15,624,637.75 18,243,284.16 66,810,333.90
Ministry of Works and Transport (MoWT)
UNRA
23,919,169.47 28,769,252.97 33,075,182.44 38,749,997.87 44,715,340.05 169,228,942.80
Ministry of Energy and Mineral
Development (MEMD)
ERA, REA
14,572,289.18 17,969,901.36 20,728,026.05 24,855,173.55 28,898,550.97 107,023,941.10
Ministry of Health (MoH) 7,367,616.15 8,782,497.00 10,173,689.33 11,840,910.88 13,686,918.26 51,851,631.60
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban
Development (MoLHUD)
ULC
1,497,781.75 1,799,387.38 2,066,726.57 2,422,242.18 2,777,603.91 10,563,741.80
Ministry of Tourism, Wildlife and
Antiquities (MoTWA)
UWA, UTB
453,019.20 505,652.55 574,095.63 630,619.75 678,862.87 2,842,250.00
Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social
Development (MoGLSD) 780,212.70 903,175.42 1,036,516.82 1,182,573.86 1,319,202.70 5,221,681.50
Office of the Prime Minister (OPM) 2,057,546.27 2,436,320.24 2,816,699.79 3,260,410.43 3,744,875.96 14,315,852.70
Ministry of Trade, Industry and
Cooperatives (MoTIC)
UNBS,
2,758,715.34 3,307,049.20 3,885,281.66 4,620,033.96 5,347,460.24 19,918,540.40
Ministry of Finance Planning and
Economic Development (MoFPED)
UBOS, Population
Secretariat
4,938,565.89 6,007,146.49 6,938,550.28 8,220,304.95 9,531,615.19 35,636,182.80
Ministry of Education and Sports (MoES) Public Universities
2,606,481.49 3,146,906.00 3,714,442.02 4,468,231.08 5,187,529.32 19,123,589.90
National Planning Authority (NPA) 4,927,599.67 5,921,266.46 6,868,654.51 8,095,736.78 9,371,784.57 35,185,042.00
Ministry of Local Government (MoLG) 426,316.59 499,911.39 575,409.88 666,005.45 748,918.79 2,916,562.10
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 21
Kampala Capital City Authority (KCCA) 5,168,152.30 6,227,425.14 7,156,000.20 8,398,542.80 9,685,555.05 36,635,675.50
Local Governments (LGs) 18,316,700.79 22,169,883.47 25,697,979.35 30,473,553.15 35,285,419.79 131,943,536.55
Others (CSOs, Private Sector,
Development Partners, regional Bodies
etc) 6,316,340.55 7,627,814.64 8,837,655.64 10,457,777.73 12,092,513.48 45,332,102.05
Total 126,121,946.28 152,317,157.32 176,478,017.11 208,839,117.45 241,494,670.84 905,250,909.00
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 22
Table 6: Estimated climate change interventions cost for Ministries/Sectors 2013/2014.
FY 2013-2014
Ministry/Department Indicated Agencies
under the Ministry
Costs (US$)
Ministry of Water and Environment (MWE) NEMA, NFA, NWSC,
Uganda Meteorology
Authority
13,423,977
Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF) NARO, NAFFRI,
NAADS
15,134,634
Ministry of Works and Transport (MoWT) UNRA 11,350,975
Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development (MEMD) ERA, REA 7,567,317
Ministry of Health (MoH) 6,053,853
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development
(MoLHUD)
ULC 2,270,195
Ministry of Tourism, Wildlife and Antiquities (MoTWA) UWA, UTB 2,270,195
Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development
(MoGLSD)
2,270,195
Office of the Prime Minister (OPM) 1,513,463
Ministry of Trade, Industry and Cooperatives (MoTIC) UNBS, 2,270,195
Ministry of Finance Planning and Economic Development
(MoFPED)
UBOS, Population
Secretariat
2,270,195
Ministry of Education and Sports (MoES) Public Universities 2,270,195
National Planning Authority (NPA) 1,513,463
Ministry of Local Government (MoLG) 3,783,658
Kampala Capital City Authority (KCCA) 756,732
MWE - CC Coordination Costs (CCU/NCCC) 1,513,463
Total 76,232,707
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 23
5. Detailed Indicative Implementation Strategy
5.1 Common Policy Priorities Matrix
Common Priorities
Policy priority: To identify and promote common policy priorities to address climate change in Uganda
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change
(USD)
Timeframe Lead
Implemen
tation
Agency
Responsible
Parties
Possible Sources of
Finance
Possible Policy
Instruments for
Promoting Climate
Change Investment
Short term
(1-5 yrs)
Medium
Term (6-10
yrs)
Long- term
(10-15 yrs)
1 To promote
and enhance
climate
change
education,
public
awareness
and capacity
development
through
communicatio
n, training,
information
and
knowledge
management
1.1 Climate change
education, public
awareness and
knowledge
management for a
range of
stakeholders in the
country.

8,917,000

2,080,000

3,173,000

3,664,000
1.1.1 Climate
change is integrated
in education
curricula and
training at primary,
secondary, tertiary
and higher
education levels
MoES/CC
U-MWE
MWE, NPA, MoLG,
Local Governments,
Development
Partners,
Universities and
Training Institutions,
CSOs, Private
Sector
1. Government
2. MLOs, BLs focused on
education and knowle ge
management (e.g.
CDKN, UNECA, LDCF)
3. Institutions, NGOs,
Think tanks (e.g. ACPC)
1. National budget
(education)
2. Grants, TA
3. Research Grants;
payment in kind (technical
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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4. Private Sector
training)
4. Co-financing; payment in
kind (teacher training)
1.1.2 Training
models that address
climate change
challenges and
opportunities
developed and
harmonized in all
training institutions
in the country.
MoESCCUMWE
MWE, NPA, MoLG,
Local Governments,
Development
Partners,
Universities and
Training Institutions,
CSOs, Private
Sector
1. Government
2. MLOs and BLs (e.g.
LDCF, SCCF, ICF,
NCSP; ICF) focused on
institutional development
3. Institutions, NGOs,
Think tanks (e.g. ACPC,
CIFOR, IFPRI)
4. Private Sector
1. National budget
(education, sectoral, crosssectoral)
2. Grants, TA
3. Research Grants;
payment in kind (technical
training)
4. Co-financing; payment in
kind (technical training)
1.1.3 Establishment
of climate change
training institutions,
programmes and
centres of
excellence
supported for
increased capacity
of the country to
address climate
change including
the capacity to
access and use of
financial and
technological
resources available
nationally, regionally
and internationally.
MoESCCUMWE
MWE, NPA, MoLG,
Local Governments,
Development
Partners,
Universities and
Training Institutions,
CSOs, Private
Sector
1. Government
2. MLOs and BLs
focused on institutional
development (e.g. LDCF,
SCCF, UN-REDD
Programme; IDRC/CIDA,
GIZ, SIDA)
3. Institutions, Think
tanks, NGOs (e.g.
ACPC, CIFOR)
4. Private Sector
1. National budget
(sectoral, cross-sectoral)
2. Grants, TA
3. Research Grants;
payment in kind (technical
training)
4. Co-financing; payment in
kind (training)
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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1.1.4 A database
developed for
repository of
research findings,
and sectoral
information sharing
including knowledge
management in the
country.
MWE MoES, MAAIF,
NPA, MoLG, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners,
Universities and
Training Institutions,
CSOs, Private
Sector
Same as 1.1.1
1.1.5 A National
Climate change
negotiation platform
and focal point
established,
financed and
supported
MWE NPA, MoFPED
Development
Partners,
Universities and
Training Institutions,
CSOs, Private
Sector
Same as 1.1.3.
1.1.6 A national
climate change
communication plan
with clearly
identified targets
and messages
developed and
implemented ,
MWE NPA, MoFPED
Development
Partners,
Universities and
Training Institutions,
CSOs, Private
Sector
Same as 1.1.3
2. Provide
adequate
support for
policies and
programmes
that take into
account the
interactions
between
population
dynamics,
climate
change and
2.1 Climate smart
policies and
programs put in
place and supported

26,537,864

6,474,087

10,211,577

9,852,200
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 26
development.
2.1.1 Family
planning and
reproductive health
promoted as costeffective
way of
influencing future
population growth
and gender equality
MOH/
Population
Secretariat
UFPA, MFPED,
MoGLSD, MoLG,
Local Governments,
CSOs, Development
Partners
1. Government
2. MLOs, BLs supporting
reproductive health (e.g.
WHO, UNFPA)
3. iNGOs and
regional/local NGOs (e.g.
Population Action,
Global Gender and
Climate Alliance
(GGCA))
4. Private Sector
institutions supporting
female-run enterprise
etc. (e.g. banks, microloan
schemes)
1. National Health Sector
budget; district health
budget
2. Grants, TA
3. Grants
4. Loans, Payment in kind
(training)
2.1.2 Concerted
actions in place to
improve women’s
status, maternal and
child health, while
protecting the right
of women to make
their own decisions
about childbearing
MoH/Popu
lation
Secretariat
,
UFPA, MGLSD
MoLG, Local
Governments,
CSOs, Development
Partners
Same as 2.1.1. Same as 2.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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2.1.3 Access to
education beyond
the primary level
promoted in order to
provide a foundation
for greater resilience
to the negative
impacts of climate
change
MoES MWE, MGLSD,
UNFPA, MoLG,
Local Governments,
SCOs
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
3. Promote
climate
change
research and
development,
and
information
exchange, in
all sectors
impacted on
by climate
change so as
to better
inform future
actions to
address
climate
change
challenges
3.1 Increased
Climate change
research and
development in all
sectors impacted on
by climate change

10,181,000

2,616,000

3,511,000

4,054,000
3.1.1 Climate
change research
capacity developed
in all sectors
impacted on by
climate change
MWE
MoES, NCST,
Academic and
research
institutions, civil
society,
Development
Partners
Same as 1.1.3. Same as 1.1.3.
3.1.2 Priority climate
change research
and development
interventions are
periodically
selected,
adequately funded
and conducted in
all sectors impacted
MWE
MoES, NCST,
Academic and
research
institutions, civil
society,
Development
Partners
1. Government
2. MLOs and BLs
focused on enabling
activities and
implementation (GEF TF,
SCCF, LDCF, AF, ICF,
etc)
1. National budget
(sectoral)
2. Grant, loans, PES, cofinancing
3. Grants, payment in kind
4. Grants, payment in kind
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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on by climate
change
3. Institutions, Research
centers
4. NGOs, CSOs
5. Private sector
5. soft/ concessional loans,
carbon finance, cofinancing,
payment in kind
(TA), risk management
3.1.3 Climate
change data and
information sharing
strategies and
programmes
developed and
implemented
MWE MoES, NCST,
Academic and
research
institutions, civil
society,
Development
Partners
1. Government
2. MLOs and BLs
focused on research and
information-sharing (e.g.
LDCF, SCCF,
IDRC/CIDA, ICI, GIZ,
SIDA)
3. Institutions, Think
tanks (e.g. ACPC,
CIFOR)
4. NGOs, CSOs
5. Private Sector
1. National budget
(sectoral, cross-sectoral)
2. Grants, TA
3. Research Grants;
payment in kind (technical
training)
4. Payment in kind, TA
5. Co-financing; payment in
kind (training), TA
3.1.4 Modalities of
disseminating and
sharing climate
research findings
developed in all
sectors with an
emphasis on
research into use to
inform policy and
practice
MWE MoES, NCST,
Academic and
research
institutions, civil
society,
Development
Partners
Same as 3.1.3.
Same as 3.1.3.
4. Promote
and encourage
the
development,
transfer and
diffusion of
climate
change
technology to
address the
4.1 Increased
Climate change
research and
development,
transfer and
diffusion of
technology

34,166,000

7,958,000

12,141,500

14,066,500
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 29
problem of
climate
change in all
climate
change in all
climate
change
affected/relate
d sectors
4.1.1 Technology
transfer needs
assessment
conducted and
capacity gaps
identified
MWE MoTIC, MoES,
NCST, Academic
and research
institutions, civil
society,
Development
Partners
1. Government
2. MLOs and BLs
focused on tech transfer
(e.g. WB CTF, GEF TF,
GEF SCCF, LDCF)
3. Technical and
Academic Institutions,
Think tanks, NGOs
4. Private Sector
Government,
1. National budget
(sectoral)
2. TA, Loans, co-financing
3. Research Grants, TA,
payment in kind (technical
training)
4. Co-financing;
concessional/soft loans,
payment in kind (training)
4.1.2 Institutions put
in place and
adequately
facilitated to
manage and
coordinate the
development,
transfer, deployment
and diffusion of
climate change
resilient and low
carbon development
technology
MWE MoTIC, MoES,
NCST, Academic
and research
institutions, civil
society,
Development
Partners
Same as 4.1.1.
Same as 4.1.1
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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4.1.3 A fund for the
transfer, deployment
and diffusion of
clean and lowcarbon
technology
established
MWE MoTIC, MoES,
NCST, Academic
and research
institutions, civil
society,
Development
Partners
1. Government
2. Private sector,
financial institutions/
banks
3. NGOs, SMEs,
businesses,
1. National budget,
subsidies/ tax incentives,
feed in tariffs
2. soft loans, loan
guarantees, co-financing,
TA
3. TA, payment in kind
4.1.4 National
carbon foot print
data base
established and
effectively managed
MWE MoTIC, MoES,
NCST, Academic
and research
institutions, civil
society,
Development
Partners
Same as 4.1.1.
Same as 4.1.1.
5. To promote
and encourage
the
mainstreaming
of gender
considerations
in climate
change issues
5.1 Gender
considerations
mainstreamed in
climate change
issues and the
overall socioeconomic
life in the
country

9,684,848

2,343,045

2,855,819

4,485,984
5.1.1 Integrate
gender
considerations in
the assessing the
vulnerability,
impacts and risks to
of climate change at
local and national
levels.
MoGLSD MoGLSD 1. Government
2. MLOs, BLs supporting
gender equity (e.g. GEF,
GCF, DfID, GIZ, etc.)
3. iNGOs and
regional/local NGOs,
CSOs (e.g. CARE,
IUCN)
4. Private Sector
institutions supporting
gender equity, women
owned SMEs etc. (e.g.
banks, micro-loan
schemes)
1. National budget; district
budgets
2. Grants, TA, PES,
concessional loans
3. Payment in kind, TA
4. Co-financing, microloans,
Payment in kind
(training)
5.1.2 Communities
empowered and
both men and
women participate
in planning, testing
Same as 5.1.1. Same as 5.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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and rolling out
climate change
adaptation and
mitigation activities
5.1.3 Gender and
climate change
issues are
integrated in
education
curriculum and
training
programmes.
Same as 5.1.1. Same as 5.1.1.
5.1.4 Climate
change response
policies, activities,
and budgets
are gender
sensitive.
Same as 5.1.1. Same as 5.1.1.
5.1.5 Promote social
protection
programmes for
vulnerable
communities and
individuals more
especially including
women, children,
youth and others.
1. National budget
(sectoral); district
budgets
2. Grants, TA, PES,
concessional loans
3. Payment in kind, TA,
training
4. Co-financing, microloans,
Payment in kind
(training), risk
management
1. National and local
Government
2. MLOs, BLs supporting
gender equity and social
protections (e.g. GEF, WB,
DANIDA, SDC, SIDA, etc.)
3. iNGOs and regional/local
NGOs, CSOs working on
social safety nets,
livelihoods (e.g. CI, CARE,
IUCN)
4. Private Sector
institutions supporting
gender equity, social
welfare etc. (e.g. banks,
micro-loan schemes)
Sub-Total
89,486,712

21,471,132

31,892,896

36,122,684
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 32
5.2 Adaptation Strategy Matrix
Sector 1: Agriculture and Livestock
Policy priority:
6. To promote climate change adaptation strategies that enhance resilient, productive and sustainable agricultural systems
7. To promote value addition and improve food storage and management systems in order to ensure food security at all times, as a factor of resilience
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change
(USD)
Timeframe Lead
Implem
entatio
n
Agency
Responsible Parties Possible Sources of
Finance
Possible Policy Instruments
for Promoting Climate Change
Investment
Short term
(1-5 yrs)
Medium
Term (6-10
yrs)
Long- term
(10-15 yrs)
1. Promote and
encourage highly
adaptive and
productive crop
varieties and
cultivars in
drought-prone,
flood-prone and
rain-fed crop
farming systems
1.1 Climate
resilient,
adaptive and
productive
crops and
cultivars widely
used across
the country

28,089,981

9,190,868

7,053,019

11,846,095
1.1.1 Researchers
and institutions
capacitated to
undertake studies
on climate resilient
crop varieties and
cultivars
MAAIF NPA, Development
Partners, CSO, Research
Institutes and
Universities, NAADS
1. National and local
Government
2. Donor Support – MLOS,
BLs active in agriculture (GEF
SCCF, LDCF, WB, UNDP,
FAO, MDG Achievement
Fund – (Environment and
Climate Change thematic
window), SDC etc.)
3. Agric. NGOs, CSOs
4. International and regional
Institutions, Research Orgs
working on agriculture (e.g.
IFPRI, CGIAR)
5. Private Sector, businesses
1. Sector Budget (agriculture /
extension services), district
budgets
2 grants, concessional loans,
co-financing
3. TA, payment in kind
4. payment in kind, grants, TA
5. soft loans, risk
management/ insurance
schemes, loan guarantees,
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 33
TA
1.1.2 Climate
change risk and
vulnerability
assessment
conducted for the
crop sector
MAAIF MWE, Research
Institutes and
Universities, NAADS,
MoLG, Development
Partners, Local
Governments, CSO
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
1.1.3 Climate
resilient indigenous
crop varieties and
cultivars identified,
characterized,
preserved, shared
and promoted
MAAIF NPA, Development
Partners, CSOs,
Research Institutes and
Universities, NAADS
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
1.1.4 Field trials
conducted on
climate resilient crop
varieties
MAAIF NAADS Universities,
NEMA, Regional
research institutes,
Development Partners,
CSO and Private sector
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
1.1.5 Climate
change resilient
crop varieties made
widely available and
disseminated.
MAAIF Universities, NEMA,
Regional research
institutes, Research
Institutes, Development
Partners, Local
Governments, CSOs
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
1.1.6 Increased
awareness on the
need for and types
of climate resilient
crop varieties in
MAAIF MWE, NAADS, NARO,
Local Governments,
CSOs
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 34
public and private
sectors and
communities
2. Promote and
encourage highly
adaptive and
productive
livestock breeds
2.1 Adaptive
and productive
livestock
breeds are
widely reared
across the
country

32,900,993

15,318,113

7,053,019

10,529,862
2.1.1 Capacity of
key research
institutions and
scientists
strengthened to
undertake research
on climate resilient
livestock and poultry
MAAIF Development Partners,
CSOs, CCU, Research
Institutes and
Universities
1. National and local
Government
2. Donor Support – MLOS,
BLs active in livestock and
animal husbandry (GEF,
FAO, DANIDA, USAID, SDC,
MDGAF etc.)
3. Agric. NGOs, CSOs
4. International and regional
Institutions, Research Orgs
working on agriculture (e.g.
IFPRI, CGIAR)
5. Private Sector, businesses
1. Sector Budget (agriculture /
extension services), district
budgets
2. grants, concessional loans,
co-financing
3. TA, payment in kind
4. payment in kind, grants, TA
5. soft loans, risk
management/ insurance
schemes, loan guarantees,
TA
2.1.2 Climate
change risk and
vulnerability
assessment
conducted for the
livestock sector
MAAIF MWE, Research
Institutes and
Universities, NAADS,
MoLG, Development
Partners, Local
Governments , CSO
Same as 2.1.1.
Same as 2.1.1.
2.1.3 Climate
resilient Indigenous
livestock and poultry
breeds documented,
characterized,
shared and
promoted.
MAAIF Research Institutes and
Universities,
Development Partners,
CSOs
Same as 2.1.1.
Same as 2.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 35
2.1.4 Pilots
conducted to identify
highly adaptive and
productive livestock
breeds appropriate
to particular
communities and/or
commercial areas
MAAIF NARO, NAADS,
Development Partners,
CSOs, Local
Governments
Same as 2.1.1. Same as 2.1.1
2.1.5 Climate
resilient livestock
and poultry breeds
widely disseminated
MAAIF NARO, NAADS,
Development Partners,
Universities, NEMA,
Regional research
institutes, CSOs
Same as 2.1.1 Same as 2.1.1
2.1.56 Increased
awareness among
public and private
sectors on the need
for highly adaptive
livestock and poultry
breeds
MAAIF NARO, NAADS, Local
Governments,
Development Partners,
CSOs, Private Sector
Same as 2.1.1 Same as 2.1.1
2.1.7 Climate
change related pest
and disease
outbreaks readily
addressed through
veterinary services,
including
strengthened animal
health measures
MAAIF NARO, NAADS, MoLG,
Local Governments
Same as 2.1.1 Same as 2.1.1
3. Promote and
encourage
conservation
agriculture and
ecologically
compatible
cropping systems
to increase
resilience to the
impacts of
climate change.
3.1
Conservation
agriculture and
ecologically
compatible
cropping
systems widely
practiced to
increase
climate change
resilience
across the
country

13,014,701

6,127,245

2,938,758

3,948,698
3.1.1 Climate
resilient cropping
practices identified
and promoted to
suit different regions
and ecological
MAAIF MWE, FAO, Research
Institutes and
Universities, NAADS,
MoLG, Development
Partners, Local
Governments CSO
1. National and local
Government
2. Donor Support – MLOS,
BLs active in agriculture
1. Sector Budget (agriculture /
environment, water), district
budgets
2 grants, concessional loans,
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 36
systems in the
country
productivity (GEF TF (land
deg), SCCF, LDCF, WB,
UNDP, FAO, MDG AF, SIDA,
SDC etc.)
3. Agric. NGOs, CSOs (e.g.
IRAM, Oxfam)
4. International and regional
Institutions, Research Orgs
working on agriculture (e.g.
IFPRI, CGIAR)
5. Private Sector, businesses,
financial institutions
co-financing
3. TA, payment in kind
4. payment in kind, grants, TA
5. soft loans, risk
management/ insurance
schemes, loan guarantees,
micro-loans, TA
3.1.2 Field trials of
climate resilient
cropping patterns
conducted in
association with
water management
systems
MAAIF MWE, NAADS, NARO,
MoLG, Local
Governments , CSO
Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1.
3.1.3 Reduced land
degradation and
enhance sustainable
agricultural
production and food
supply through agroforestry,
water
management and
conservation
agriculture practices
MAAIF MWE, NAADS, NARO,
Development Partners,
MoLG, Local
Governments CSOs
Same as 3.1.1. with
additional emphasis on
forestry applications, e.g.
REDD+, PES
Same as 3.1.1. with additional
emphasis on forestry
applications, e.g. REDD+,
PES
4. Promote
sustainable
management of
rangelands and
pastures through
integrated
rangeland
management.
4.1 integrated
rangeland
management
promoted

21,978,601

-

8,816,273

13,162,328
4.1.1 Appropriate
strategies
developed to
sustainably utilize
MAAIF MWE, MoLG, NAADS,
Local Governments,
CSOs, Private Sector
1. National and local
Government
1. Sector Budget (agriculture /
environment), district budgets
(land and water planning)
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 37
communally grazed
land and rangelands
through participatory
approaches
2. Donor Support – MLOS,
BLs active in livestock and
land management (GEF TF
(land deg), FAO, WB Africa,
USAID, MDGAF etc.)
3. Agric./livestock NGOs,
CSOs (e.g. Oxfam, CI,
WOTR, etc)
4. International and regional
Institutions, Research Orgs
working on agriculture (e.g.
IFPRI, CGIAR)
5. Private Sector, businesses
2. grants, concessional loans,
co-financing, PES
3. TA, payment in kind
4. payment in kind, grants, TA
5. soft loans, risk
management/ insurance
schemes, loan guarantees,
TA
4.1.2 Best practice
indigenous range
land management
and drought coping
mechanisms
documented and
disseminated to
drought prone areas
MAAIF MWE, MoLG, NAADS,
Local Governments,
CSOs, Private Sector
Same as 4.1.1. Same as 4.1.1.
4.1.3 Rangeland
management plans
implemented,
including
sustainable
utilization at local
and national levels
MAAIF MWE, MoLG,
Development Partners,
NAADS, Local
Governments, Private
Sector
Same as 4.1.1. Same as 4.1.1.
5. Promote
irrigated
agriculture by
encouraging
irrigation systems
that use water
sustainably
5. Increased
acreage of
irrigated
agriculture

54,652,627

-

21,746,808

32,905,819
5.1.1 River basin
irrigation schemes
put in place and
managed
environmentally
sound manner.
MAAIF MWE, MoLG, MoLHUD,
NPA, NEMA, CSO and
Private sector
1. National and local
Government
2. Donor Support – MLOS,
BLs active in watershed and
1. Sector Budget (agriculture /
environment, water), district
budgets (land and water
planning)
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 38
land-use management (GEF
TF (land deg, climate
change), FAO, WB Africa,
USAID, MDGAF etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (e.g. Oxfam,
CI, IRAM, etc)
4. International and regional
Institutions, Research Orgs
working on agriculture, water
management (e.g. IFPRI,
CGIAR)
5. Private Sector, businesses
2. Grants, concessional loans,
co-financing, PES
3. TA, payment in kind
4. payment in kind, grants, TA
5. soft loans, risk
management/ insurance
schemes, loan guarantees,
TA
5.1.2 Water basins
and pans
constructed to
promote irrigated
agriculture in
communities
MAAIF MWE, MoLG, NEMA,
NARO, NAADS,
Development Partners,
CSO and Private sector
Same as 5.1.1. Same as 5.1.1.
5.1.3 Existing
irrigated production
systems
(re)configured to
use water more
efficiently and to
accommodate the
use of marginal
quality water
MAAIF MWE, MoLG, NARO,
NEMA, CSO and Private
sector
Same as 5.1.1. Same as 5.1.1.
5.1.4 Small scale
farmers supported
to undertake
irrigation activities
through exposure
and access to
appropriate irrigation
technologies.
MAAIF MWE, MoLG, Local
Governments, CSO and
Private sector
Same as 5.1.1. Same as 5.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 39
6. Promote and
encourage
agricultural
diversification,
and improved
post-harvest
handling, storage
and value
addition in order
to mitigate rising
climate related
losses and to
improve food
security and
household
incomes.
6.1 Improved
food security
and household
income through
climate-resilient
agricultural
practices

29,535,563

13,786,301

5,877,516

9,871,746
6.1.1 Programmes
undertaken to
promote agricultural
diversification at
household, local and
national levels in
order build climate
change resilient
households,
communities and
national economy.
MAAIF MoTIC, NARO, NAADS,
MoLG, Development
Partners NEMA, CSO
and Private sector
1. National and local
Government
2. Donor Support – MLOS,
BLs active in agriculture
(IFAD, WB Africa, UNDP,
FAO; IDRC/CIDA, MDG AF,
SDC, SIDA, DANIDA, etc.)
3. Agric. NGOs, CSOs
(CARE, Oxfam,
4. International and regional
Institutions, Research Orgs
working on agriculture (e.g.
IFPRI, CGIAR)
5. Private Sector, businesses
1. Sector Budget (agriculture /
extension services), district
budgets
2 grants, concessional loans,
co-financing
3. TA, payment in kind
4. payment in kind, grants, TA
5. soft loans, risk
management/ insurance
schemes, loan guarantees,
micro-loans, TA
6.1.2 Value addition
in crops and
livestock products
gained through
agro-processing.
MAAIF MoTIC, Development
Partners MoLG, Local
Governments, Private
Sector
Same as 6.1.1 Same as 6.1.1
6.1.3 Appropriate
food storage
systems developed
MAAIF OPM, MoLG, NAADS,
NARO, Local
Governments
Same as 6.1.1 Same as 6.1.1
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 40
and promoted at
household, local and
national levels to
mitigate rising
climate related post
harvest losses and
enhance food
security
6.1.4 Marketing
opportunities
provided for small
scale farmers to
increase their
income
opportunities and
resilience to climate
change impacts
MAAIF, MoTIC, MFPED, MoLG,
Local Governments,
Private Sector
Same as 6.1.1 Same as 6.1.1
6.1.5 Income
generating activities
that may arise due
to climate change
are identified and
implemented
MWE MAAIF, NPA, MWE,
CSO, Privates Sector
Same as 6.1.1 Same as 6.1.1
7. Support
communitybased
adaptation
strategies
through
expanded
extension
services and
improved
systems for
conveying timely
climate
information to
rural populations
for enhanced
climate resilience
of agricultural
systems
7.1
Communitybased

adaptation
strategies and
resilient
agricultural
systems
implemented
throughout the
country

11,482,890

4,595,434

2,938,758

3,948,698
7.1.1 Agrometeorological

information
generation
strengthened for
improved early
warning systems
MWE
(Meteor
ology
and
CCU)
MAAIF, OPM, NPA,
Local Governmentss,
NEMA.
1. Government
2. MLOs and BLs focused on
climate research and data/
information-sharing (e.g. GEF
LDCF, SCCF, AF, WB Africa,
IDRC/CIDA, ICI, GIZ, SIDA)
1. National budget (research,
agriculture, weather/
meteorological), district
budgets (meteorological
systems)
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 41
and food security
3. Institutions, Think tanks
(e.g. ACPC, CIFOR)
4. NGOs, CSOs
5. Private Sector, financial
institutions, businesses
2. Grants, TA
3. Research Grants; payment
in kind (technical training)
4. Payment in kind, TA
5. Co-financing; loans,
payment in kind (training), TA
7.1.2 Capacity for
the collection,
analysis and
dissemination of
early warning
systems data and
information
strengthened
MAAIF MWE, OPM, MoLG,
Local Governments,
CSOs, Development
Partners
Same as 7.1.1.
Same as 7.1.1.
7.1.3 Communitymanaged

information
platforms
disseminate timely
weather and climate
information to
farmers and other
users
MWE
(Meteor
ology
and
CCU)
OPM, MAAIF, MoLG,
Local Governments
CSOs
Same as 7.1.1. with
emphasis on local funding
sources, CSOs, district
governments
Same as 7.1.1. with emphasis
on community and district
level sources
7.1.4 Involvement of
communities in
initiatives that
empower them to
wisely use natural
resources to
enhance their
resilience to climate
change
MAAIF NAADS, MoGLSD,
NAADS, CSOs
Same as 7.1.3. Same as 7.1.3.
7.1.5 Integrated
crop-livestock
systems developed
to enhance
community
resilience to climate
change impacts
MAAIF NAADS, MoLG, NAADS,
Local Governments,
CSOs, Private Sector
1. National and local
Government
2. Donor Support – MLOS,
BLs active in livestock and
agriculture (GEF TF (land
deg), FAO, WB Africa,
1. Sector Budget (agriculture /
environment), district budgets
(land and water planning)
2. Grants, concessional loans,
co-financing, PES
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 42
USAID, MDGAF etc.)
3. Agric./livestock NGOs,
CSOs (e.g. Oxfam, CI, etc)
4. International and regional
Institutions, Research Orgs
working on agriculture (e.g.
IFPRI, CGIAR)
5. Private Sector, businesses
3. TA, payment in kind
4. Payment in kind, grants, TA
5. Soft loans, risk
management/ insurance
schemes, loan guarantees,
TA
7.1.6 Appropriate
livestock production
systems developed
to enhance
community
resilience to climate
change impacts
MAAIF NAADS, MoGLSD,
NAADS, CSOs, Private
sector
Same as 7.1.5. Same as 7.1.5.
8. Develop
innovative
insurance
schemes (lowpremium
microinsurance

policies) and lowinterest
credit
facilities to insure
farmers against
crop failure and
livestock loss
due to droughts,
pests, floods and
other weatherrelated
events
8.1 Innovative
insurance
schemes to
protect farmers
against crop
failure and
livestock loss
due to extreme
weather-related
events

105,442,110

49,017,960

56,424,150
-
8.1.1 Insurance
schemes enable
farmers to restock
livestock and grow
crops after adverse
climatic conditions
MFPED MAAIF, MGLSD,
NAADS, NPA, Famer
Organisations, CSOs,
Private Sector
1. Government
2. MLOs, BLs active in land
management, agriculture
(GEF, FAO, SDC, etc.)
3. Private Sector
1. National Agric Sector
Budget; District budget
2. co-financing, grants, loans,
TA
3. Risk management,
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 43
insurance schemes, microloans,
TA, payment in kind
Sub-Total
297,097,466

98,035,920

112,848,300

86,213,246
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 44
Sector 2: Water
Policy priority: To support on-going efforts to ensure that climate change concerns are integrated into national efforts for sustainable and long-term conservation, access and effective utilisation and management of water resources.
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change
((USD)
Timeframe Lead
Implemen
tation
Agency
Responsible Parties Possible Sources of Finance Possible Policy Instruments
for Promoting Climate
Change Investment Short term
(1-5 yrs)
Medium
Term (6-10
yrs)
Long- term
(10-15 yrs)
1. Promote and
encourage water
harvesting and
efficient water
utilization among
individuals,
households,
institutions and
sectors
1.1 Increased
water harvesting
and efficient
water utilization
across the
country

11,580,711

1,231,873

4,199,918

6,148,920
1.1.1 Increased
investment in
innovative water
harvesting and storage
technologies and
infrastructure to
ensure availability of
water during dry
seasons
MWE MAAIF, NEMA, NWSC,
Districts, Municipalities,
Local Communities,
Private Sector, Ministry
of Water’s appropriate
Technology Centre
(ATC), Universities and
Research Institutions
households and
individuals
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs and
BLs active in water harvesting,
storage, agriculture (GEF LDCF,
SCCF, ICF, FAO; MDGAF,
SIDA, etc.)
3. Private Sector – financial
institutions, businesses
4. CSOs, NGOs, (WOTR, IUCN,
etc)
5. Research institutions (IFPRI,
CGIAR, etc.)
1. National Sector Budgets
(water, agriculture), district
budget
2. Grants, TA,
concessional/soft loans, cofinancing
3. Direct investment
(infrastructure), soft/
concessional loans, risk
management, TA, loan
guarantees
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, grants
1.1.2 Water efficient
technologies adopted
MWE MAAIF, NEMA, NWSC,
CSOs, Private sector ,
Ministry of Water’s
appropriate Technology
Centre (ATC),
Universities and
Research Institutions
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 45
1.1.3 Water
conservation in urban
areas improved
through water
recycling, reuse and
reduction of water
wastage
MWE MAAIF, NWSC, NEMA,
Municipalities, CSOs and
Private Sector,
households and
individuals
Same as 1.1.1 Same as 1.1.1
1.1.4 Sustainable
utilization of water
enforced in rural and
urban areas
MWE MAAIF, NWSC, NEMA,
Local Governments
Same as 1.1.1 Same as 1.1.1
2. Ensure
availability of
water for
production in
water dependant
sectors in order to
increase their
resilience to
climate change
impacts
2.1 Water for
production
provided in water
dependant
sectors to
increase their
resilience to
climate change

69,453,691

15,398,406

26,726,753

27,328,532
2.1.1 Better
coordination in
agriculture and water
sectors to ensure
water availability for
irrigation and
application in dry
spells
MWE MAAIF, MEMD, NEMA,
MoLG. Local
Governments,
communities
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
supporting coordination,
capacity building (GEF LDCF,
MDG AF Environment and
Climate Change thematic
window, AF, WB Africa;
IDRC/CIDA, SIDA, GIZ,
DANIDA, etc.)
3. CSOs, NGOs
4. Private sector
1. National Budget (sectoral,
cross-sectoral/ co-ordinating
agencies)
2. grants, TA
3. grants, TA, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
2.1.2 Improved
livestock watering
facilities
MAAIF MWE, MoLG. Local
Governments,
communities, private
sector and individuals
1. National and local
Government
2. Donor Support – MLOS, BLs
active in livestock and animal
1. Sector Budget (agriculture /
extension services), district
budgets
2. Grants, concessional loans,
co-financing, TA
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 46
husbandry (FAO, DANIDA,
USAID, SDC, MDGAF etc.)
3. Agric. and livestock NGOs,
CSOs (Oxfam, Heffer Intnl.)
4. International and regional
Institutions, Research Orgs
working on agriculture (e.g.
IFPRI, CGIAR)
5. Private Sector, businesses
3. TA, payment in kind
4. Payment in kind, grants, TA
5. Soft loans, risk
management/ insurance
schemes, loan guarantees, TA
2.1.3 Regulation of
lake levels for optimal
hydropower production
ensured
MWE MEMD, Ministry of
MoLG. NEMA, Local
Governments,
communities
1. Government
2. CSOs, NGOs active in
watershed management
3. Private Sector – financial
institutions, businesses
1. National budget (sectoral),
tax incentives/ subsidies
2. payment in kind, TA
3. payment in kind, TA
2.1.4 Water
conservation within
forestry, tourism and
navigation supported
to ensure water
availability in those
sectors.
MWE MAAIF, Ministry of
Tourism, Ministry of
MoLG. Local
Governments,
communities, private
sector and individuals
Same as 2.1.3. Same as 2.1.3.
3. Promote and
strengthen the
conservation and
protection against
degradation of
watersheds, water
catchment areas,
river banks and
water bodies
3.1 Conservation
and protection of
watersheds and
water catchment
areas against
degradation
- - - -
3.1.1
Watershed/catchment
management plans
devised and approved
MWE MAAIF, NFA, UWA,
Local Governments,
CSOs, Development
Partners
1. Government
2. Donor Support from MLOs,
BLs (LDCF, SCCF, MDGAF,
etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs, research orgs
(IFPRI; WOTR)
1. National Sector Budget,
district budgets (planning)
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, payment in kind
3.1.2 Sustainable land
management practices
expanded in
MWE MAAIF, MEMD, MoLG,
Local Governments,
Development Partners,
Same as 3.1.1. in partnership
with private sector where
possible
Same as 3.1.1. in partnership
with private sector where
possible
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 47
watersheds SCOs, communities
3.1.3 Schemes for
restricted/prohibited
access to and use of
natural resources in
watershed areas
implemented
MWE MAAIF, NEMA, UWA,
NFA, Local
Governments,
communities
Same as 3.1.1. in partnership
with private sector where
possible
Same as 3.1.1. in partnership
with private sector where
possible
3.1.4 Degraded
watersheds restored
MWE MAAIF, NFA, UWA,
Local Governments,
communities
Same as 3.1.1. in partnership
with private sector where
possible
Same as 3.1.1. in partnership
with private sector where
possible
3.1.5 Expansion of
community-based
watershed
management and
other decentralized
water resource
management
MWE NEMA, MoGLSD, Local
Governments,
communities
Same as 3.1.1. in partnership
with private sector where
possible
Same as 3.1.1. in partnership
with private sector where
possible
3.1.6 Heightened
awareness on the
importance of
sustainable use of
water resources
MWE MAAIF, Local
Governments,
communities
Same as 3.1.1. in partnership
with private sector where
possible
Same as 3.1.1. in partnership
with private sector where
possible
4. Promote
Integrated Water
Resources
Management
(including
underground
water resources),
including
contingency
planning for
extreme events
such as floods
and drought
4.1 Integrated
Water Resources
Management
Systems in place
across the
country

105,892,624

13,858,566

30,544,860

61,489,198
4.1.1 Integrated water
resource planning and
water information
management systems
designed and
approved
MWE MAAIF, NEMA NWSC,
Local Governments,
communities
1. Government
2. Donor Support from MLOs,
BLs active in water management
(LDCF, SCCF, MDGAF, etc)
3. Research orgs, institutions
(IFPRI, CGIAR)
1. National Sector Budget,
district budgets (water,
planning)
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, payment in kind, grants
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14 October 2013 48
4. NGOs, CSOs, (WOTR,
Oxfam)
5. Private sector
4. TA, payment in kind
5. direct investment,
concessional loans, TA, risk
management schemes
4.1.2 Integrated water
resource management
plans implemented
MWE MAAIF, NEMA, Local
Governments,
communities
Same as 4.1.1. Same as 4.1.1.
4.1.3 Flood and
drought protection
structures in place to
prepare against waterrelated
disasters
MWE MAAIF, Local
Governments,
communities
Same as 4.1.1. Same as 4.1.1.
4.1.4 Gender sensitive
water management
programmes
implemented and
youth involvement in
decision-making
regarding water use
and management
MWE MoGLSD, MAAIF, Local
Governments,
communities
Same as 4.1.1. with
engagement of youth and
gender-equity focused CSOs
and NGOs
Same as 4.1.1. with
engagement of youth and
gender-equity focused CSOs
and NGOs
4.1.5 Inter-basin water
transfers (waterways)
constructed to channel
water away from areas
with excess water to
those with deficit
MWE MoWT, MAAIF, NPA,
NWSC, Local
Governments,
communities
Same as 4.1.1. Same as 4.1.1.
4.1.6 Improved water
governance, and
enhanced coordination
and collaboration
amongst various
water-relevant sectors
MWE MAAIF, MEMD,
MoLHUD, MoTI, Local
Governments,
communities
Same as 4.1.1. with emphasis
on research orgs and NGOs
supporting KM and coordination
Same as 4.1.1. with emphasis
on research orgs and NGOs
supporting KM and
coordination
4.1.7 Improvement in
equitable access to
and control over water
resources
MWE MAAIF, MoLHUD, Local
Governments,
communities
Same as 4.1.1. with emphasis
on research orgs, NGOs and
CSOs focused on participatory
resource management
Same as 4.1.1. with emphasis
on research orgs, NGOs and
CSOs focused on participatory
resource management
5. Ensure that all
guidelines for
infrastructure/
hydraulic works
(i.e., water for
production, piped
water supply
schemes and
conditional grants
guidelines for
support to point
5.1 National
guidelines
developed for
climate proofing
infrastructure/hydr
aulic works

3,079,681

3,079,681

-

-
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 49
sources
protection)
mainstream
climate change
5.1.1 Guide for
mainstreaming climate
change into the water
sector (infrastructure/
hydraulic works)
developed
MWE NPA, MAAIF, Local
Governments,
communities
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(GEF LDCF, MDGAF, WB, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutes and/or
private sector
1. National Budget
2. grants, TA
3. payment in kind, TA
4. TA
5.1.2 Capacity built
among key
government personnel
and staff for water
resources
management
MWE MAAIF, Local
Governments,
communities
Same as 5.1.1. Same as 5.1.1.
5.1.3 Templates with
cost elements in
mainstreaming climate
change developed to
guide stakeholders in
planning, budgeting
and implementation of
adaptation
activities/action
MWE MAAIF, NPA, MoLG,
Local Governments,
Development Partners,
CSOs.
Same as 5.1.1. Same as 5.1.1.
6. Improve and
strengthen transboundary

cooperation
regarding water
resources
management
6.1 Improved
trans-boundary
cooperation
regarding water
resources
management
- - - -
6.1.1 Mechanisms and
opportunities for transboundary
cooperation
regarding water use
and management
MWE Ministry of Foreign
affairs, Ministry of East
African affairs, EAC,
MAAIF, Nile Basin
Initiative
1. Government
2. MLOs, BLs concerned with
regional cooperation (EAC CC
1. Sector Budget, tax
incentives, subsidies
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 50
established and/or
strengthened
Fund, GEF TF, LDCF, MDG AF,
UN Agencies, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs, research
institutes
4. Private Sector
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
6.1.2 Information
shared on water use,
demand, and water
resources
development
MWE Ministry of Foreign
affairs, Ministry of East
African affairs, EAC,
MAAIF, Nile Basin
Initiative
Same as 6.1.1. Same as 6.1.1.
6.1.3 Compliance to
agreed procedures for
conflict resolution
regarding water use
and management
established
MWE Ministry of Foreign
affairs, Ministry of East
African affairs, EAC,
MAAIF, Nile Basin
Initiative
Same as 6.1.1. Same as 6.1.1.
6.1.4 Joint transboundary
research
and poverty reduction
water-related
investments
strengthened
MWE Ministry of Foreign
affairs, Ministry of East
African affairs, EAC,
MAAIF, Nile Basin
Initiative, Universities
and Research Institutions
Same as 6.1.1. Same as 6.1.1.
7. Support
institutional and
human capacity
building in water
resource use,
development and
management
7.1 Developed
institutional and
human capacity in
water resource
use, development
and management

4,212,516

1,539,841

2,672,675
-
7.1.1 Training
programmes on water
and watershed
management
conducted
MWE MAAIF, Development
Partners, Universities
and Research Institutions
1. Government
2. MLOs, BLs concerned with
water management (UN
Agencies, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs, research
institutes (IFPRI, CGIAR,
WOTR)
4. Private Sector businesses
1. National Sector Budget
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 51
7.1.2 Experiences and
best practices on
water use and
management
exchanged/shared
among stakeholders
MWE MAAIF, MEMD,
Development Partners,
CSOs, Private Sector,
commmunities
Same as 7.1.1. Same as 7.1.1.
8. Strengthen
water resource
monitoring
networks and
flood warning
systems
8.1 Water
resource
monitoring
networks and
flood warning
systems
strengthened

8,693,606

1,539,841

3,054,486

4,099,280
8.1.1 Climate change
models and forecasts
are used to
understand future
water changes
MWE MAAIF, MEMD, UNEMA,
niversities and Research
Institutions
Same as 7.1.1. with emphasis
on NGOs, research orgs that
can facilitate research,
coordination, dissemination
Same as 7.1.1. with emphasis
on NGOs, research orgs that
can facilitate research,
coordination, dissemination
8.1.2 Sufficient
hydrometric network(s)
and flood warning
systems protect floodprone
areas
MWE MAAIF, MoLHUD, Local
Governments
Same as 7.1.1. with emphasis
on NGOs, research orgs that
can facilitate research,
coordination, dissemination
Same as 7.1.1. with emphasis
on NGOs, research orgs that
can facilitate research,
coordination, dissemination
8.1.3 Changes in
surface and ground
water quality and
quantity monitored
MWE NEMA, Same as 7.1.1. Same as 7.1.1.
8.1.4 Artificial
recharging of
groundwater for
threatened aquifers
regularly monitored
MWE NEMA, Same as 7.1.1. Same as 7.1.1.
8.1.5 Laws and
regulations enforced
(and/or enacted) for
efficient water
resource management
MWE NEMA, Local
governments
Same as 7.1.1. with emphasis
on government leveraging – e.g.
tax (dis)incentives, subsidies
Same as 7.1.1. with emphasis
on government leveraging –
e.g. tax (dis)incentives,
subsidies
Sub-Total
202,912,829

36,648,207

67,198,692

99,065,930
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 52
Sector 3: Fisheries and Aquaculture
Policy priority: To strengthen efforts to promote integrated fisheries resource management and improve aquaculture in order to ensure sustainable fisheries production
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change
( USD)
Timeframe Lead
Implementation
Agency
Responsible Parties Possible Sources of
Finance
Possible Policy Instruments for
Promoting Climate Change
Investment
Short term
(1-5 yrs)
Medium
Term (6-10
yrs)
Long- term
(10-15 yrs)
1. Promote and
encourage
climate change
resilient fishing
practices
1.1 Climate
change resilient
fishing practices

71,816,872

6,141,932

20,897,833

44,777,107
1.1.1 Studies on
the impact of
climate change
fisheries and
aquaculture
conducted
MAAIF MWE, NAFIRI,
Universities and research
institutions, NAADS
1. Government
2. Donor Support –
MLOs, BLs active on
fisheries, aquaculture
(GEF TF, FAO, EC,
SIDA, CIDA, etc)
3. Research orgs and
NGOs (ODI, ICTSD,
etc)
1. National Sector Budget
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, payment in kind, grants
1.1.2 Input and
output controls of
the natural water
fisheries sector
adapted based
on research
findings
MAAIF MWE, NAFIRI, NAADS,
Fishing communities,
private sector,
universities and research
institutions
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
1.1.3 Coping and
adaptation
mechanisms
developed and
MAAIF MWE, NAFIRI, NAADS,
Fishing communities,
private sector,
universities and research
Same as 1.1.1. with
additional support from
NGOs and CSOs with
a focus on fishing
Same as 1.1.1. with additional
support from NGOs and CSOs
with a focus on fishing
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 53
tested for fishing
communities
relying on natural
water bodies
institutions communities (e.g.
CGIAR World Fish)
communities
1.1.4 Climate
early warning
systems
developed to
enhance
responsiveness
of the fisheries
sector to climate
change
MAAIF MWE Same as 7.1.1. Same as 7.1.1.
1.1.5 Fish
breeding sites in
water bodies
identified and
protected
MAAIF MWE, NAFIRI, Fishing
communities, private
sector, universities and
research institutions
1. Government
2. Research
organizations
3. NGOs, CSOs,
communities
4. Private sector
1. Sector budget, tax
(dis)incentives
2 TA, grants
3. payment in kind, TA
4. payment in kind, TA
1.1.6
Government
support
programmes and
low interest credit
facilities enable
fishing
communities to
recover from
adverse climate
conditions
MAAIF MFPED, MWE, NPA,
Private Sector
1. Government
2. Private Sector
financial institutions
1. tax (dis)incentives, loan
schemes
2. concessional/soft loans, microloans,
risk management
schemes
1.1.7 Regulate
lake levels to
assist fisheries
MWE MAAIF, MoLG, Local
Governments,
communities
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
2. Promote
sustainable fish
farming as a
means of
2.1 Sustainable
fish farming
practices
- - - -
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 54
economic
diversification
and enhancing
the resilience of
the fishing
sector to the
impacts of
climate change.
2.1.1 Promote
small scale,
community, and
large scale fish
farming that
reduces overfishing
MAAIF MWE, NAFIRI, NAADS,
Local Governments,
communities
1. Government
2. Donor Support –
MLOs, BLs active on
fisheries, aquaculture
(GEF TF, FAO, EC,
SIDA, CIDA, etc)
3. Research orgs and
NGOs (CGIAR, etc)
4. Private Sector
1. National Sector Budget,
district budgets, community
budgets, tax incentives, loan
schemes
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, payment in kind, grants
4. TA, soft/ concessional loans,
micro-loans, loan guarantees
2.1.2
Investments in
commercial fish
feed production
MAAIF MWE, NAFIRI, NAADS,
Local Governments,
communities
Same as 2.1.1. Same as 2.1.1.
2.1.3
Government
support
programmes and
low interest credit
facilities in place
to enable
communities
adopt fish faming
MAAIF MFPED, MWE, NAFIRI,
NPA, Private Sector
Same as 2.1.1. Same as 2.1.1.
2.1.4 Value
addition to
fisheries
MAAIF NAFIRI, NAADS,
Universities and
Research Institutions,
Same as 2.1.1. Same as 2.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 55
products
promoted by
training
fishermen in
post-harvest
handling and
processing
Private Sector
2.1.5
Technologies
provided for
reducing use of
firewood in fish
smoking
MAAIF MEMD, NAFIRI, NAADS,
Development Partners,
CSO, Private Sector
1. Government
2. Donor partners -
MLOs, BLs (WB, GEF,
FAO; SIDA, DANIDA,
SDC, CIDA, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs, (CI,
WWF, TNC etc)
4. Research orgs
(IFPRI, CGIAR)
5. Private Sector
businesses
1. national budget (sector),
district budget
2. grants, TA, tech transfer, PES
3. payment in kind, TA
4. payment in kind, TA
5. payment in kind, TA, risk
management, micro-loans
2.1.6 Increased
investment in
fisheries
extension
services
MAAIF NAADS, NAFIRI, Local
Governments, CSO,
Communities
1. Government
2. Donor Support –
MLOs, BLs active on
fisheries, aquaculture
(GEF TF, FAO, EC,
SIDA, CIDA, etc)
3. Research orgs and
1. National Sector Budget,
district budgets, tax incentives,
loan schemes
2. Grants, TA
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 56
NGOs (CGIAR, etc)
4. Private Sector
3. TA, payment in kind, grants
4. TA, direct investment
3. Promote and
encourage
collaborative
and
participatory
management of
aquatic
ecosystems
3.1 Increased
collaborative
and
participatory
management of
aquatic
ecosystems

14,586,011

2,047,311

12,538,700

-
3.1.1 Fisheries
resource
management
incorporates
ecosystembased

approaches to
adaptation
MAAIF MWE, NAFIRI, NEMA,
Local Governments,
CSO, Communities
1. Government
2. Donor partners -
MLOs, BLs (WB, GEF,
FAO; SIDA, DANIDA,
SDC, CIDA, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs, (CI,
WWF, TNC, etc)
4. Research orgs
(IFPRI, CGIAR, etc.)
5. Private Sector
businesses
1. National budget (sector),
district budget
2. Grants, TA, tech transfer, PES
3. Payment in kind, TA
4. Payment in kind, TA
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 57
5. Payment in kind, TA, risk
management, micro-loans
3.1.2 Improved
aquatic resource
governance
through
increased
coordination and
collaboration
amongst various
aquatic and
fisheries related
sectors
MAAIF MWE, MEMD, NEMA,
NAFIRI, Local
Governments, CSO,
Communities
Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1.
3.1.3 Community
based fisheries
and aquatic
ecosystem
management
promoted and
encouraged
MAAIF MWE, NEMA, NAFIRI,
NAADS, MLGSD, MoLG,
Local Governments,
CSO, Communities
Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1.
4. Promote
awareness of
the climate
change–related
impacts on
fisheries
amongst the
various
stakeholders,
such as local
communities,
resource
managers and
policy makers
4.1 Improved
awareness of
climate
change–related
impacts on
fisheries
amongst
various
stakeholders

7,293,005

1,023,655

6,269,350

-
4.1.1 Potential
extent of climate
change impacts
on fishing
communities
relying on natural
waters
determined
MAAIF MWE, NAFIRI,
Universities and research
institutions, Local
Governments, CSO,
Communities
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
4.1.2 Increased
awareness on
the means,
MAAIF NAADS, MWE,
Universities, Local
Governments, CSOs
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 58
methods and
options to create
a climate resilient
fishing sector
4.1.3 Capacity
for fisheries and
aquatic
resources
management
built through
training and
deployment of
personnel to
mainstream
climate change in
fisheries and
aquaculture
MAAIF Universities and research
institutions, Local
Governments, CSOs
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
5. Provide
economic
incentives to
diversify
livelihood
options in order
to reduce
dependence on
climatesensitive

fisheries
resources
5.1 Expansion
of livelihoods
options reduces
pressure on
climate
sensitive fishery
resources

20,812,888

4,094,621

16,718,267

-
5.1.1 Diversified
sources of food,
income and
livelihoods
identified and
promoted among
fishing
communities to
enhance
community
climate change
resilience
MAAIF NPA, NAADS, MoTI,
MWE, Universities and
research institutions,
Local Governments,
CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support –
MLOs, BLs (GEF,
FAO, UNDP, UNEP,
DANIDA, DFID, etc)
3. CSOs, NGOs,
(CARE, CI, etc.)
4. Research orgs,
institutions,
5. Private sector
1. Sector Budget, district and
community budgets, subsidies
2. grants, TA
3. grants, payment in kind, TA
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 59
4. grants, payment in kind, TA
5. micro-loans, TA
5.1.2
Government
support
programmes and
low interest credit
facilities enable
fish famers adapt
fish farming
practices and
incorporate other
livelihood
strategies
MFPED MAAIF, NPA, Local
Governments, CSOs ,
private sector,
communities
1. Government
2. Private sector
financial institutions
1. Sector Budget, district and
community budgets, subsidies,
loan schemes
2. Soft/concessional loans,
insurance schemes, loan
guarantees, risk management
6. Promote
biological
engineering and
restoration of
stress-tolerant
organisms
6.1 Biological
engineering and
restoration of
stress-tolerant
organisms

48,616,969

4,094,621

12,538,700

31,983,648
6.1.1 Research
conducted to
develop fish
species that are
tolerant to
climate change
related stresses
MAAIF MWE, Universities and
Research Institutions,
Local Governments,
CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support –
MLOs, BLs active on
fisheries, aquaculture
(GEF TF, FAO, EC,
SIDA, CIDA, etc)
3. Research orgs and
NGOs (ODI, ICTSD,
etc)
1. National Sector Budget
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, payment in kind, grants
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 60
6.1.2 Increased
investment in fish
hatcheries
MAAIF Universities and
Research Institutions,
Local Governments,
Private sector, CSOs
1. Government
2. Research orgs,
NGOs, CSOs
3. Private sector
financial institutions
1. Sector Budget, district and
community budgets, subsidies,
loan schemes
2. TA, payment in kind
3. Soft/concessional loans,
insurance schemes, loan
guarantees, risk management
6.1.3 Research
conducted in
predation control
in line with
seasonal
variations
MAAIF MWE, Universities and
Research Institutions,
CSOs
Same as 6.1.1. Same as 6.1.1.
6.1.4 Integration
of afforestation
plans and
practices with
those of
aquaculture
MWE MAAIF, Universities and
Research Institutions,
Local Governments,
CSOs
Same as 6.1.1. with
additional support from
donors active in
forestry, REDD+,
biodiversity (e.g. GEF,
UNDP REDD, FAO,
etc)
Same as 6.1.1. with additional
support from donors active in
forestry, REDD+, biodiversity
(e.g. GEF, UNDP REDD, FAO,
etc)
6.1.5. Investment
for enabling
wider use of
stress tolerant
species
MAAIF Universities and
Research Institutions,
Local Governments,
Private sector, CSOs
Same as 6.1.2. Same as 6.1.2.
7. Improve and
strengthen
trans-boundary
cooperation
regarding
fisheries and
aquatic
ecosystems
management
7.1 Improved
trans-boundary
cooperation in
fisheries and
aquatic
ecosystems
management
- - - -
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 61
7.1.1
Opportunities
and fora
improved or
created for
dialogue and
decision-making
on transboundary

cooperation in
fisheries
resource
management
strengthened
MAAIF MWE, Ministry of Foreign
affairs, Ministry of East
African affairs, EAC,
MAAIF, Nile Basin
Initiative
1. Government
2. Donor partners
active in regional
cooperation - MLOs,
BLs (WB, GEF, FAO;
SIDA, DANIDA, SDC,
CIDA, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs,
regional partners,
institutions (EAC; CI,
WWF, TNC etc)
4. Research orgs
1. national budget (sector),
district budgets where applicable
2. grants, TA
3. grants, payment in kind, TA
4. payment in kind, TA
7.1.2 Information
on fisheries
resources
development
shared among
key actors
MAAIF MWE, Ministry of Foreign
affairs, Ministry of East
African affairs, EAC,
MAAIF, Nile Basin
Initiative
Same as 7.1.1. Same as 7.1.1.
7.1.3 Agreed
procedures for
conflict resolution
are adhered to
regarding
fisheries
resource
management
MAAIF MWE, Ministry of Foreign
affairs, Ministry of East
African affairs, EAC,
MAAIF, Nile Basin
Initiative
Same as 7.1.1. Same as 7.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 62
7.1.4 Joint transboundary

research on
fisheries
strengthened
MAAIF MWE, Ministry of Foreign
affairs, Ministry of East
African affairs, EAC,
MAAIF, Nile Basin
Initiative
Same as 7.1.1. Same as 7.1.1.
Sub-Total
163,125,744

17,402,140

68,962,850

76,760,754
Same as 7.1.1. Same as 7.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 63
Sector 4: Transport and Works
Policy priority: To develop and ensure integrated planning and management of transport and other physical infrastructure that build on insights from climate predictions
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change
(USD)
Timeframe Lead
Implementation
Agency
Responsible
Parties
Possible Sources of
Finance
Possible Policy Instruments
for Promoting Climate Change
Investment Short term
(1-5 yrs)
Medium
Term (6-10
yrs)
Long-term
(10+yrs)
1. Integrate
climate change
into the existing
infrastructure
risk
assessment
guidelines and
methodology
1.1 Climate
proofed
infrastructure
risk
assessment
guidelines and
methodology

14,100,800

14,100,800
- - MoWT MWE, NPA,
UNRA, NEMA,
KCCA, Local
Governments
1. Government
2. Donors – MLOs, BLs
(e.g. WB, AfDB)
3. Research
organizations,
regional/national
institutions, think tanks
1. National Sector Budget,
district budgets
2. TA, budget support
3. TA, payment in kind
1.1.1 Transport
and works
professionals
review and revise
existing risk
assessment
methodology
MoWT MWE, NPA,
UNRA, NEMA,
KCCA, Local
Governments
1.1.2 Climate
change transport
infrastructure risk
assessment
methodology,
guidelines and
programmes
developed
MoWT MWE, NPA,
UNRA, NEMA,
KCCA, Local
Governments
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
1.1.3 Climate
change transport
infrastructure risk
assessment
programme
implemented
MoWT MWE, NEMA,
NPA, UNRA,
KCCA, Local
Governments
Same as 1.1.1. with
additional support from
private sector
Same as 1.1.1. with additional
support from private sector
2. Building on
work already
underway,
establish and
enforce climate
change–
2.1 Climate
change–
resilient
standards for
transport and
infrastructure

21,532,900

7,050,400

14,482,500

-
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 64
resilient
standards for
transport and
infrastructure
planning and
development
through
monitoring and
reporting
systems
planning and
development in
place
2.1.1 Climate
resilience
framework
developed to
regulate and guide
transport
infrastructure
development
MoWT MWE, NEMA,
NPA, UNRA,
KCCA, Local
Governments
Same as 1.1.1. with
additional support from
MLO and BL climate
change funds
Same as 1.1.1. with additional
support from MLO and BL
climate change funds
2.1.2 Penalties in
place and
enforced against
non-compliance to
transport and
works laws and
regulations
short term MoWT MWE, NEMA,
NPA, UNRA,
KCCA, Local
Governments
1. Government
2. NGOs, CSOs
1. National budget, district
budgets as needed, tax
(dis)incentives
2. TA, payment in kind
2.1.3 Establish or
improve flood
forecasting and
warning systems
for the transport
sector
short term MWE MOWT, UNRA,
KCCA, Local
Governments
Same as 1.1.1. with
additional support from
private sector
Same as 1.1.1. with additional
support from private sector
3. Encourage
the integration
of climate
change into
transport and
infrastructure
development
strategies
3.1 Climate
proofed
transport and
infrastructure
development
strategies

622,589,867

141,008,000

144,825,000
336,756,867
3.1.1 Increased
awareness of
needs for
mainstreaming
climate change
into the transport
and works sectors
MoWT MWE, UNRA,
KCCA, Local
Governments
1. Government
2. Donors – MLOs, BLs
(WB, GEF SCCF, ICF,
etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs,
1. Sector Budget
2. TA, Grants for capacity
building
3. TA, payment in kind, grants
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 65
research institutions
4. Private sector
4. TA, payment in kind (training)
3.1.2 Clear guide
developed for
mainstreaming
climate change
into the transport
sector
Short to
medium term
MoWT MWE, NEMA,
UNRA, KCCA,
Local
Governments
Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1.
3.1.3 Action plan
devised for
mainstreaming
climate change
into the transport
and works sector
Short to
medium term
MoWT MWE, NEMA,
UNRA, KCCA,
Local
Governments
Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1.
3.1.4 Existing
infrastructure
climate-proofed
especially in areas
where climate
change is
predicted to cause
damage or
destruction to
infrastructure.
Medium term MoWT MWE, NEMA,
UNRA, KCCA,
Local
Governments
1. Government
2. Donors – MLOs, BLs
(WB, AfDB, GEF SCCF,
ICF, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs,
research institutions
4. Private sector
1. Sector Budget
2. TA, co-financing,
concessional loans, grants
3. TA, payment in kind, grants
4. direct investment, soft loans,
risk schemes
3.1.5 Transport
and traffic
management
infrastructure
designed and
implemented to
promote climate
resilience
Medium to
long-term
MoWT MWE, NEMA,
UNRA, KCCA,
Local
Governments
Same as 3.1.4. Same as 3.1.4.
4. Promote and
encourage
water
catchment
protection in
transport
infrastructure
development
and
maintenance
4.1 Transport
infrastructure
supports water
catchment
protection and
maintenance

191,853,717

35,252,000

72,412,500

84,189,217
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 66
4.1.1 Water and
forest sectors
supported in water
catchment
protection and
programs
MWE MoWT, NFA
NEMA, UNRA,
KCCA, Local
Governments
1. Government
2. Donor Support –
MLOs, BLs (WB CIFs,
GEF, ICF, FORMIN,
DFID, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs (WWF,
CI, TNC, WOTR, etc)
4. Private sector
Sector Budget
2. Grants, concessional loans,
co-financing
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. payment in kind, soft loans,
carbon finance
4.1.2 Tree planting
and afforestation
programs
promoted along
road reserves and
river banks
Medium to
long-term
MoWT MWE, NFA,
NEMA, UNRA,
KCCA, Local
Governments
Same as 4.1.1. Same as 4.1.1.
5. Climate-proof
existing and
future
infrastructure
by conducting
geotechnical
site
investigations
(GSIs) to
determine
whether areas
are appropriate
or inappropriate
for
infrastructural
development
5.1
Geotechnical
site
investigations
(GSIs) enable
improved
climate-proofed
infrastructure

203,826,716

14,100,800

144,825,000

44,900,916
5.1.1 Climate
change risk
assessment
studies conducted
for transport
infrastructure
MoWT UNRA, NEMA,
KCCA,
Universities,
Local
Governments
1. Government
2. Donors – MLOs, BLs
(e.g. WB, AfDB, GEF)
3. Research
organizations,
regional/national
institutions, academia,
think tanks
1. National Sector Budget,
district budgets
2. TA, budget support, grants
3. TA, payment in kind
5.1.2 Climate
change risk map
developed to show
Short to
Medium term
MoWT NEMA, NPA,
UNRA, KCCA,
Universities,
Same as 5.1.1. Same as 5.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 67
extent and types of
vulnerability in
infrastructure
Local
Governments
5.1.3 Development
and approval of a
climate change
infrastructure risk
preparedness plan
and response for
the transport
sector
Medium term MoWT UNRA, NEMA,
KCCA,
Universities,
Local
Governments
Same as 5.1.1. Same as 5.1.1.
Sub-Total
1,053,904,00
0

211,512,000

376,545,000 465,847,000
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 68
Sector 5: Forestry
Policy priority: To ensure the sustainable management of forestry resources so that they can continue to provide global services, including mitigating climate change, while supporting the sustainable development needs
of communities and the country
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change
(USD)
Timeframe Lead
Implemen
tation
Agency
Responsible
Parties
Possible Sources of
Finance
Possible Policy Instruments for
Promoting Climate Change
Investment Short
term (1-5
yrs)
Medium
Term (6 to
10 yrs)
Long- term
(10-15 yrs)
1. Strengthen
the existing
national
forestry policy
to reduce
deforestation
and forest
degradation
1.1
Strengthene
d national
forestry
policy to
reduce
deforestatio
n and forest
degradation

2,906,801

615,936

2,290,865
1.1.1 Climate Change
integrated in existing
National Forestry Policy
MWE/
FSSD
NFA, UWA,
MAAIF, NEMA,
MEMD, MoLG,
Local
Governments,
CSOs/NGOs
DFS
LGs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (FCPF, FIP, GEF, AF;
SDC, SIDA, DFID, GIZ,
etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. Sector Budget; district budgets
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, Levy of
taxes
1.1.2 Forestry legal
framework, law
enforcement and
governance strengthened
to stop illegal logging,
deforestation, and land
degradation
MWE/
FSSD
NFA, UWA,
MAAIF, NEMA,
MEMD, MoLG,
Uganda Police,
Judiciary, Local
Governments,
CSOs/NGOs
DFS
Same as 1.1.1. with
additional government
mechanisms for financial
(dis)incentives – taxes,
subsidies
Same as 1.1.1. with additional
government mechanisms for
financial (dis)incentives – taxes,
subsidies
1.1.3. Forest sector
institutional development
and coordination
MWE/
FSSD
NFA, UWA,
NEMA, MoLG,
MPS,MFPED,
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 69
strengthened to promote
sustainable forest
management
NPA, LG, DFS
2. Promote
intensified and
sustained
afforestation
and
reforestation
programmes
implemented by
the
government,
institutions,
households and
individuals, the
private sector,
civil society and
multilateral
organizations
2.1
Sustainable
forest
managemen
t practices
(afforestatio
n,
reforestation
etc)

1,761,369

615,936

1,145,432
-
2.1.1 Forestry mapping
strengthened to monitor
changes in forest cover
and forest-related
activities
MWE
FSSD
NFA, UWA,
MAAIF, NEMA,
MEMD, MoLG,
Local
Governments,
Universities and
Forestry
Institutes,
CSOs/NGOs
DFS
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (FCPF, FIP, GEF, AF;
SDC, SIDA, DFID, GIZ,
etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (CI, WWF,
IUCN, TNC, etc)
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. Sector Budget; district budgets
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, direct
investment
2.1.2 Private, community
and cultural forests
registered
MWE
FSSD
Same as 2.1.1 Same as 2.1.1 Same as 2.1.1
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 70
2.1.3 Forest
management plans
developed and
implemented at local and
national level
MWE/
FSSD
NFA, UWA,
MAAIF, NEMA,
MEMD, MoLG,
Local
Governments,
CSOs/NGOs
DFS
Same as 2.1.1. Same as 2.1.1.
2.1.4 Supply of quality
tree seeds and planting
materials increased to
promote tree planting
MWE/
FSSD
NFA, Private
sector, University,
Research
institutions
(NaFORRI), Local
Governments,
DFS
Same as 2.1.1. Same as 2.1.1.
2.1.5 Reforestation and
conservation of natural
forests strengthened to
increase resilience to
climate change impacts
MWE/
FSSD
NFA, UWA,
MAAIF, NEMA,
MEMD, MoLG,
Uganda Police,
Judiciary, Local
Governments,
CSOs/NGOs
Same as 2.1.1. Same as 2.1.1.
2.1.6 Afforestation and
tree growing
promoted for increased
production of forestry
products like poles,
timber, wood fuel etc
MWE/
FSSD
NFA, UWA,
MAAIF, NEMA,
MEMD, MoLG,
Uganda Police,
Judiciary, Local
Governments,
CSOs/NGOs
Same as 2.1.1. Same as 2.1.1.
2.1.7 Urban forestry
mainstreamed in urban
development plans
MWE/
FSSD
NFA, UWA,
MAAIF, NEMA,
MEMD, MoLG,
Uganda Police,
Judiciary, Local
Governments,
CSOs/NGOs
Same as 2.1.1. with
additional support from
NGOs, CSOs active in
urban and peri-urban
settlements
Same as 2.1.1. with additional
support from NGOs, CSOs active
in urban and peri-urban
settlements
2.1.8 Forest
management practices
applied that improve
timber yield while
enhancing the climate
resilience of forests and
forest products
MWE/
FSSD
NFA, UWA,
MAAIF, NEMA,
MEMD, MoLG,
Local
Governments,
CSOs/NGOS
Same as 2.1.1. Same as 2.1.1.
2.1.9 Forest-dependent
rural communities
involved in forest
management
MWE/
FSSD
MoLG, Local
Governments,
DFS,
Communities,
CSOs/NGOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (FCPF, WB FIP, GEF,
AF; SDC, SIDA, DFID, GIZ,
1. Sector Budget; district budgets
2. Grants, TA
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 71
UNDP REDD, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (CI, WWF,
IUCN, TNC, etc)
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, direct
investment
2.1.10 Increased
community awareness of
the importance of forestry
resources and trees in
the environment
MWE/
FSSD
MoLG, Local m
Governments,
DFS,
Communities,
CSOs/NGOs
Same as 2.1.8 Same as 2.1.8
2.1.11 Community forests
established and
sustainably managed
MWE/
FSSD
MoLG, Local
Governments,
DFS,
Communities,
CSOs/NGOs
Same as 2.1.8 Same as 2.1.8
2.1.12 Women and youth
empowered to take active
role in forest
management
MWE/
FSSD
MLGSD, MoLG,
Local
Governments,
DFS,
Communities,
CSOs/NGOs
Same as 2.1.8 with focus
on NGOs and CSOs
working in gender equity
and youth education
Same as 2.1.8 with focus on NGOs
and CSOs working in gender
equity and youth education
2.1.13 Restoration and
rehabilitation of degraded
forest ecosystems and
sites promoted
MWE/
FSSD
NFA, UWA,
NEMA, MoLG,
Local
Governments,
DFS,
Communities,
CSOs/NGOs
Same as 2.1.8. Same as 2.1.8.
2.1.14 Strategic
interventions developed
under REDD program to
support climate change
resilient forestry sector
and other supporting
sectors
MWE
/FSSD
NFA, UWA, DFS,
MAAIF, MoLG,
Local
Governments,
Communities,
CSOs/NGOs,
private sector
Same as 2.1.8. Same as 2.1.8.
3. Promote and
encourage
efficient
biomass energy
production and
utilization
technologies to
reduce biomass
consumption
3.1 Efficient
biomass
energy
production
and
consumptio
n
technologie
s and

3,522,737

1,231,873

2,290,865
-
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 72
practices
expanded
across the
country
3.1.1 Sustainable
charcoal production and
utilization technologies
promoted to reduce
biomass (wood) fuel
consumption
MEMD,
MWE,
FSSD
1. Government,
NFA, DFS
2. Donor Support
– MLOs, BLs
(FCPF, FIP, GEF,
AF; SDC, SIDA,
FORMIN, DFID,
GIZ, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs
(CI, WWF, IUCN,
TNC, etc)
4. Research
institutes
(including
NaFORRI),
Universities
5. Private Sector,
private forest
owners
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (FCPF, FIP, GEF, AF;
SDC, SIDA, FORMIN,
DFID, GIZ, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (CI, WWF,
IUCN, TNC, etc)
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. Sector Budget; district budgets
2. Grants, TA, tech transfer
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, direct
investment, tech transfer
3.1.2 Alternative/nontimber
livelihood systems
take pressure off forest
resources
MWE/
FSSD
Same as 3.1.1.
but with emphasis
on NGOs, CSOs
centered on
forest-based
livelihoods and
private sector
Same as 3.1.1. but with
emphasis on NGOs, CSOs
centered on forest-based
livelihoods
Same as 3.1.1. but with emphasis
on NGOs, CSOs centered on
forest-based livelihoods
3.1.3 Establishment of
woodlots (farm forestry)
for fuel-wood and other
household uses
MWE/
FSSD
Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1.
4. Encourage
agro-forestry,
which will
enable poor
rural
households to
meet their
4.1 Agroforestry

practices
enable poor
rural
households
to meet their
7,153,766 - 3,054,486 4,099,280
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 73
subsistence
and energy
needs
subsistence
and energy
needs
4.1.1 Agro-forestry and
tree planting on farm
intensified to cater for
various need e.g.
food/subsistence,, wood
fuel, fodder, shelter
windbreaks etc.
MWE/
FSSD
1. Government,
DFS, MAAIF,
MEMD
2. Donor Support
– MLOs, BLs
(FCPF, FIP, GEF,
AF; SDC, SIDA,
FORMIN, DFID,
GIZ, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs
(CI, WWF, IUCN,
TNC, CARE, etc)
4. Research
institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. Sector Budget; district
budgets
2. Grants, TA, tech transfer
3. TA, grants, payment in
kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind,
direct investment, tech
transfer, soft loans, risk
management
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(FCPF, FIP, GEF, AF; SDC, SIDA,
FORMIN, DFID, GIZ, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (CI, WWF, IUCN,
TNC, CARE, etc)
4. Research institutes, academia
5. Private Sector
4.1.2 On-farm growing of
high conservation value
species promoted
MWE/
FSSD
DFS, MAAIF 1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (FCPF, FIP, GEF, AF;
SDC, SIDA, FORMIN,
DFID, GIZ, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (CI, WWF,
IUCN, TNC, CARE, etc)
4. Research institutes,
academia
1. Sector Budget; district budgets
2. Grants, TA, tech transfer
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
4.1.3 Initiatives launched
to provide funding and
incentives for agroforestry
and improved
forestry management
MFPED MWE, MAAIF,
NFA, FSSD, DFS,
Development
Partners, CSOs
Same as 4.1.1. Same as 4.1.1.
5. Strengthen
existing forestry
research and
encourage
conservation
and restoration
of forest
ecosystems
5.1
Strengthene
d forestry
research
and
sustainable
forest
ecosystem

8,942,208

-

3,818,108
5,124,100
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 74
critically
threatened by
climate change
managemen
t
5.1.1 Forestry research
capacity enhanced and
forestry research
conducted to document
and pilot climate resilient
indigenous and exotic
tree species in the
country
MWE/
FSSD/
MAAIF
NFA, NFC,
NaFORRI,
Development
partners, Local
Governments,
Communities,
CSO, Private
Sector
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (FCPF, WB FIP, GEF,
AF; SDC, SIDA, DFID, GIZ,
UNDP REDD, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (CI, WWF,
IUCN, TNC, etc)
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. Sector Budget; district budgets
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, direct
investment
5.1.2 Climate change
integrated in forestry
training and education
MoES,
MAAIF
NFA, Same as 5.1.1. Same as 5.1.1
5.1.3 Drought resistant,
pest and disease
resistant, and
multipurpose tree species
promoted in the country
MWE/
FSSD
NFA, UWA,
MAAIF, NEMA,
MEMD, MoLG,
University and
Research
Institutes,NFC,
NaFORRI, Local
Governments,
CSOs/NGOs
Same as 5.1.1 Same as 5.1.1
Sub-Total
24,286,880

2,463,745

12,599,755 9,223,380
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 75
Sector 6: Wetlands
Policy priority: To promote long-term wetland conservation and restoration of degraded wetlands so that they can continue to provide global services, including mitigating climate change, while supporting the sustainable development needs of
communities and the country
Strategic
interventions
Expected outcomes Output Total
Additional
cost due
to climate
change
(USD)
Timeframe Lead
Implementati
on Agency
Responsible
Parties
Possible Sources of Finance Possible Policy Instruments for
Promoting Climate Change
Investment Short term
(1-5 yrs)
Medium
Term (6-10
yrs)
Long- term
(10-15 yrs)
1. Strengthen the
existing national
wetland policy to
prevent wetland
degradation and
encroachment
1.1 Strengthened national
wetland policy prevents
degradation and
encroachment

307,968

307,968

-
1.1.1 Climate change
integrated in the
national wetland policy
MWE MAAIF, NEMA,
Local
Governments,
CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(GEF, WB, AF; SDC, SIDA,
DFID, GIZ, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. Sector Budget; district budgets
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind
1.1. 2 Wetland legal
and regulatory
framework
strengthened to stop
illegal logging,
deforestation, and land
degradation
MWE MAAIF, NEMA,
Local
Governments,
CSOs
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
2. Promote and
intensify wetland
protection and
restoration of
degraded wetlands
2.1 Sustainable wetland
management, wetland
protection and restoration of
degraded wetlands

689,779

307,968

381,811
2.1.1 Wetland mapping
strengthened to monitor
the status of wetlands
MWE MAAIF, NEMA,
Local
Governments,
CSOs
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 76
2.1.2 Wetland
management plans
implemented at local
and national level
MWE MAAiF, NEMA,
Local
Governments,
CSOs
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
3. Strengthen
collaborative and
participatory
management of
wetland resources
3.1 Collaborative and
participatory wetland
resources management

381,811

-

381,811
3.1.1 Ecosystem based
approach to wetland
resource management
integrated climate
change adaptation in
the wetland sector
MWE MAAIF, NEMA,
Local
Governments,
CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(GEF, WB, AF; DFID, FORMIN,
SIDA etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (CI, IUCN,
WWF, TNC, etc)
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. Sector Budget; district budgets
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind
3.1.2 Wetland resource
governance improved
through coordination
and collaboration
amongst various
wetland-related sectors
MWE MAAIF, MoLHUD,
NEMA, Local
Governments,
CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(GEF, WB, AF; SDC, SIDA,
DFID, GIZ, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. Sector Budget; district budgets
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind
3.1.3 Expansion of
community based
wetland management
across the country
MWE MAAIF, NEMA,
Local
Governments,
CSOs,
Communities
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
4. Strengthen existing
wetland research and
encourage
conservation and
restoration of
ecosystems critically
threatened by climate
change
4.1 Strengthened wetland
research, conservation, and
restoration measures lessen
climate impacts to
ecosystems
923,905 923,905 -
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14 October 2013 77
4.1.1 Research on the
potential effects or
threats of climate
change on wetlands
ecosystems is used to
devise appropriate
adaptive responses
MWE NEMA, Local
Governments,
CSOs
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
4.1.2 Increased
involvement of wetland
-dependent
communities in wetland
management
MWE NEMA, Universities
and Research
Institutions, Local
Governments,
CSOs,
communities
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
4.1.3 Increased use of
indigenous knowledge
systems for sustainable
wetland management
MWE NEMA, Universities
and Research
Institutions, Local
Governments,
CSOs,
communities
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(GEF, WB, AF; DFID, FORMIN,
SIDA etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (CI, IUCN,
WWF, TNC, etc)
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. Sector Budget; district budgets
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind
4.1.4 Increased
awareness of the
importance of wetland
resources in the
environment through
sensitization and
community participation
MWE NEMA, Local
Governments,
CSOs,
communities
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(GEF, WB, AF; SDC, SIDA,
DFID, GIZ, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. Sector Budget; district budgets
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind
4.1.5 Women and youth
empowered to take
active role in the
management and
sustainable utilization of
wetland resources
MWE NEMA, Universities
and Research
Institutions, Local
Governments,
CSOs,
communities
Same as 4.1.1. geared toward
research orgs, NGOs, CSOs
active on gender equity, youth
education
Same as 4.1.1. geared toward
research orgs, NGOs, CSOs active
on gender equity, youth education
4.1.6 Degraded wetland
ecosystems and sites
restored
MWE NEMA, Universities
and Research
Institutions, Local
Same as 4.1.1. Same as 4.1.1.
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14 October 2013 78
Governments,
CSOs,
communities
Sub-Total
2,303,463

1,539,841

763,622
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 79
Sector 7: Biodiversity and ecosystem services
Policy priority: To effectively address the challenges posed by climate change impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems, so as to ensure ecosystem health and provision of ecosystem services that are crucial to
sustainable and resilient development
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change
(USD)
Timeframe Lead
Implem
entation
Agency
Responsibl
e Parties
Possible Climate Finance
Instruments / Sources of
Finance
Possible Financial Tool /
Products Short term
(1-5 yrs)
Medium
Term (6-10
yrs)
Longterm

(10-15
yrs)
1. Identify
biodiversity
hotspots where
only restricted
development
should be
allowed
1.1 Identification
of biodiversity
hotspots where
only restricted
development
should be allowed

1,761,369

615,936

1,145,432

-
1.1.1. National Biodiversity
Strategy and Action Plan
(NBSAP) operationalized and
implemented
MWE NEMA, NFA,
UWA, Local
Government
s, CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(GEF, WB, AfDB, AF, GCF,
UNDP, UNEP; DFID, GIZ,
SIDA etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (CI, IUCN,
WWF, TNC, etc)
4. Research institutes,
academia (IISD, IIED, ODI, etc)
5. Private Sector
1. Sector Budget; district budgets
2. Grants, TA, PES, co-financing
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
1.1.2 Biodiversity and
ecosystem mapping conducted
and biodiversity hotspots for
preservation identified
NEMA MWE, UWA, Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
1.1.3 Enhanced knowledge
base and increased
understanding of climate
change impacts on biodiversity
and ecosystems
MWE NEMA, NFA,
UWA,
Universities
and
Research
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
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14 October 2013 80
Institutions,
Local
Government
s, CSOs
1.1.4 Species threatened by
climate change identified, and
focused research and
conservation measures
undertaken
MWE NEMA, NFA,
UWA,
Universities
and
Reaserach
Institutions,
Local
Government
s, CSOs
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
1.1.5 Increased awareness of
the impacts of climate change
on biodiversity and ecosystems
and on the need for ecosystem
based adaptation
MWE NEMA, NFA,
UWA,
Universities
and
Reaserach
Institutions,
Local
Government
s, CSOs
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
2. Build on
efforts
underway to
strengthen
sustainable
land
management in
fragile
ecosystems
and sharing of
benefits
2.1 Sustainable
land management
in fragile
ecosystems

689,779

307,968

381,811

-
2.1.1. Framework and well
defined mechanisms
developed to promote
payment for ecosystem
services (PES) and community
rights on access and benefit
sharing.
MWE NEMA, NFA,
UWA, , Local
Government
s, CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(GEF, WB, AfDB, AF, GCF,
UNDP, UNEP; DFID, GIZ,
SIDA etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (CI, IUCN,
WWF, TNC, etc)
1. Sector Budget; district budgets
2. Grants, TA, PES, co-financing
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
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14 October 2013 81
4. Research institutes,
academia (IISD, IIED, ODI, etc)
5. Private Sector
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
2.1.2 Ecosystem-based
adaptation promoted as a
means/tools to increase
resilience of fragile ecosystems
to climate change impacts
MWE NEMA, NFA,
UWA, , Local
Government
s, CSOs
Same as 2.1.1. Same as 2.1.1.
2.1.3 Bush clearance studied
and its impact on Uganda’s
green house gas profile
understood
MWE NEMA, NFA,
UWA,
Universities
and
Reaserach
Institutions,
Local
Government
s, CSOs
Same as 2.1.1. Same as 2.1.1.
2.1.4 Sustainable range
management and land use
planning promoted
MWE NEMA, NFA,
UWA,
Universities
and
Reaserach
Institutions,
Local
Government
s, CSOs
Same as 2.1.1. Same as 2.1.1.
2.1.5 Conservation measures
promoted inside and outside
protected areas and in other
fragile ecosystems
MWE NEMA, NFA,
UWA, Local
Government
s, CSOs
Same as 2.1.1. Same as 2.1.1.
3. Encourage
collaborative
management
and sustainable
use of
biodiversity and
ecosystems
3.1 Strengthened
collaboration on
sustainable use of
biodiversity and
ecosystems
management

381,811

-

381,811

-
3.1.1 Climate change
adaptation measures
incorporate ecosystem-based
approaches to natural resource
management
MWE NEMA, NFA,
UWA,
Universities
and
Reaserach
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(GEF LDCF, WB, AfDB, AF,
GCF, UNDP, UNEP; DFID,
1. Sector Budget; district budgets
2. Grants, TA, PES, co-financing
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
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14 October 2013 82
Institutions,
Local
Government
s, CSOs
GIZ, SIDA etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (CI, IUCN,
WWF, TNC, etc)
4. Research institutes,
academia (IISD, IIED, ODI, etc)
5. Private Sector
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
3.1.2 Improved coordination
and collaboration in ecosystem
management across sectors
MWE NEMA, NFA,
UWA, , Local
Government
s, CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(GEF, WB, AfDB, AF, GCF,
UNDP, UNEP; DFID, GIZ,
SIDA etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (CI, IUCN,
WWF, TNC, etc)
4. Research institutes,
academia (IISD, IIED, ODI, etc)
5. Private Sector
1. National Budget (sector, crosssector);
district budgets
2. Grants, TA, direct budget
support, co-financing
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
3.1.3 Community based natural
resource management
systems enable protection of
biodiversity and ecosystems
MWE NEMA, NFA,
UWA, Local
Government
s, CSOs,
Communities
Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1.
4. Promote
valuation and
payment for
ecosystem
services, and
streamline
other
ecosystem
benefit-sharing
schemes
4.1 Functioning
valuation and
payment for
ecosystem
services and
ecosystem
benefit-sharing
systems

1,761,369

615,936

1,145,432
4.1.1 Socio-economic benefits
of biodiversity and ecosystems
(and the extent to which they
are threatened by climate
change) researched and
MWE NEMA, NFA,
UWA,
Universities
and
Research
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(GEF LDCF, WB, AfDB, AF,
GCF, UNDP, UNEP; DFID,
1. Sector Budget; district budgets
2. Grants, TA, PES, co-financing
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
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14 October 2013 83
documented Institutions,
Local
Government
s, CSOs,
Communities
GIZ, SIDA etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (CI, IUCN,
WWF, TNC, etc)
4. Research institutes,
academia (IISD, IIED, ODI,
WRI, etc)
5. Private Sector – specialized
technical experts
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
4.1.2 Adaptive responses
utilize valuation and PES
schemes
Same as 4.1.1. Same as 4.1.1.
4.1.3 Payment for ecosystem
services and other benefit
sharing schemes incentivize
biodiversity and ecosystem
conservation
Same as 4.1.1. Same as 4.1.1.
5. Ensure that
any human
activity within
the vicinity of
protected areas
does not
compromise
the integrity of
the ecosystem
5.1 Human activity
within the vicinity
of protected areas
does not
compromise the
integrity of
ecosystems

683,213

-

-

683,213
5.1.1 Promotion of responsible
utilization of ecosystems and
restoration of degraded
ecosystems
MWE NEMA, NFA,
UWA,
Universities
and
Research
Institutions,
Local
Government
s, CSOs,
Communities
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(GEF LDCF, WB, AfDB, AF,
GCF, UNDP, UNEP; DFID,
GIZ, SIDA etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (CI, IUCN,
WWF, TNC, etc)
4. Research institutes,
academia (IISD, IIED, ODI,
WRI, etc)
1. Sector Budget; district
budgets; community budget
2. Grants, TA, PES, co-financing
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
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14 October 2013 84
5. Private Sector – specialized
technical experts
5.1.2 Ecosystem management
plans implemented
MWE NEMA, NFA,
UWA, Local
Government
s, CSOs,
Communities
Same as 5.1.1. Same as 5.1.1.
5.1.3 Access to and use of
resources in fragile
ecosystems restricted
MWE NEMA, NFA,
UWA, Local
Government
s, CSOs,
Communities
Same as 5.1.1. Same as 5.1.1.
5.1.4 Legal framework on
environmental impact
assessment and environmental
audit enforced for all activities
in fragile ecosystems
MWE NEMA, NFA,
UWA, Local
Government
s, CSOs,
Communities
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(GEF LDCF, WB, AfDB, AF,
GCF, UNDP, UNEP; DFID,
GIZ, SIDA etc.)
3. Regional/local NGOs, local
CSOs
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. Sector Budget (taxes,
subsidies); district budgets;
community budget
2. Grants, TA, co-financing
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, co-financing, payment in
kind
6. Strengthen
the capacity for
monitoring the
impacts of
climate change
on biodiversity,
ecosystems
and ecosystem
services
6.1 Enhanced
capacity to
monitor the
impacts of climate
change on
biodiversity,
ecosystems and
ecosystem
services

1,071,590

307,968

763,622

-
6.1.1 Potential impacts of
climate change on ecosystems
modeled.
MWE NEMA, NFA,
UWA, Local
Government
s, CSOs,
Communities
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(GEF LDCF, WB, AfDB, AF,
GCF, UNDP, UNEP; DFID,
GIZ, SIDA etc.)
1. National Budget (sector, crosssectoral)
2. Grants, TA, PES, co-financing
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
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14 October 2013 85
3. NGOs, CSOs (CI, IUCN,
WWF, TNC, etc)
4. Research institutes,
academia (IISD, IIED, ODI,
WRI, etc)
5. Private Sector – specialized
technical experts
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
6.1.2 Appropriate ecosystembased
adaptation measures
developed and tested
MWE NEMA, NFA,
UWA, Local
Government
s, CSOs,
Communities
Same as 6.1.1. Same as 6.1.1.
6.1.3. Climate change
indicators for biodiversity and
ecosystem monitoring
incorporated into national
strategies and quantitative
baselines established
MWE NEMA, NFA,
UWA, Local
Government
s, CSOs,
Communities
Same as 6.1.1. Same as 6.1.1.
6.1.4 Human resource trained
in ecosystem-based adaptation
measures and strategies
MWE NEMA, NFA,
UWA,
Universities,
Local
Government
s, CSOs,
Communities
Same as 6.1.1. Same as 6.1.1.
Sub-Total
6,349,130

1,847,809

3,818,108

683,213
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 86
Sector 8: Health
Policy priority: To strengthen adaptive mechanisms and enhance early-warning systems and adequate preparedness for climate change–related diseases
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change
(USD)
Timeframe Lead
Implementa
tion
Agency
Responsible
Parties
Possible Climate Finance
Instruments / Sources of
Finance
Possible Financial Tool /
Products
Short term
(1-5 yrs)
Medium
Term (6-10
yrs)
Long- term
(10-15 yrs)
1. Conduct
vulnerability
assessments
of health sector
to climate
change
impacts
1.1 Identified
vulnerabilities
of the health
sector to
climate change
impacts are
used to support
decisionmaking

9,495,328

9,495,328

-

-
1.1.1 Knowledge base built
on the vulnerability of the
health sector to climate
change
MoH UBOS, MWE,
Universities and
Research
Institutions, Local
Governments
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (GEF LDCF, WB Africa,
AfDB, UNDP, MDGAF,
WHO; DFID, USAID, JICA,
NORAD, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector –
specialized health experts
1. National Budget (sector,
cross-sectoral); district
budgets
2. Grants, TA, co-financing,
budget support
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing,
direct investment
1.1.2 Information on the
vulnerability of the health
sector to climate change
disseminated widely to all
key stakeholders
MoH UBOS, MWE,
Universities and
Research
Institutions, Local
Governments
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
1.1.3 Limitations of the
health sector/systems
response capacity to
climate related health risks
identified
MoH MWE, UBOS,
Universities and
Research
Institutions, Local
Governments
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
2. Assess the
impacts of
2.1 Potential
impacts of

47,356,147

18,990,655

28,365,491

-
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 87
climate change
on human
health and
wellbeing
climate change
on human
health and wellbeing
used to
support
decisionmaking
2.1.1 Research and
assessments on potential
impacts of climate change
on human health and well
being widely disseminated
MoH MWE,
Universities and
Research
Institutions, Local
Governments
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (GEF LDCF, WB Africa,
AfDB, UNDP, MDGAF,
WHO; DFID, USAID, JICA,
NORAD, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector –
specialized health and
climate change experts
1. National Budget (sector,
cross-sectoral); district
budgets
2. Grants, TA, co-financing,
budget support
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
2.1.2 Cost of increased
mortality, morbidity and
consequent reduction in
human productivity due to
climate change impacts on
human health calculated
MoH MWE, UBOS,
Universities and
Research
Institutions, Local
Governments
Same as 2.1.1. Same as 2.1.1.
3. Put in place
contingency
plans to
develop
climate
change–
resilient health
systems
3.1
Contingency
plans in place
for climate
resilient health
systems

47,476,638

-

23,738,319

23,738,319
3.1.1 Infrastructural,
human and financial
resource needs to respond
to climate change-related
health risks defined and
calculated
MoH MoWT, MWE,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (GEF LDCF, WB Africa,
AfDB, UNDP, MDGAF,
WHO; DFID, USAID, JICA,
NORAD, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutes,
1. National Budget (sector,
cross-sectoral); district
budgets
2. Grants, TA, co-financing,
budget support
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 88
academia
5. Private Sector –
specialized economic and
health experts
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
3.1.2 Health sector
preparedness programme
developed to respond to
the impacts of climate
change
MoH OPM, MWE,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1.
3.1.3 Health workers
increase understanding
and capacity for action to
improve climate change
resilience of health
systems
MoH MWE, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1.
4. Improve the
capture,
management,
storage and
dissemination
of health
information
4.1 Improved
health
information
managements
systems in the
country

28,596,581

9,570,709

9,455,164

9,570,709
4.1.1 Collection and
management of health
data and health records
strengthened at health
centres
MoH UBOS, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (GEF LDCF, WB Africa,
AfDB, UNDP, MDGAF,
WHO; DFID, USAID, JICA,
NORAD, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector –
health/data management
experts
1. National Budget (sector,
cross-sectoral); district
budgets
2. Grants, TA, co-financing,
budget support
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
4.1.2 Capacity and means
to collate and analyze
health data improved
MoH UBOS, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
Same as 4.1.1. Same as 4.1.1.
4.1.3 Health information
dissemination framework
implemented
MoH UBOS, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
Same as 4.1.1. Same as 4.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 89
5. Heighten the
surveillance of
disease
outbreaks and
provide
subsequent
rapid
responses to
control
epidemics
5.1 Surveillance
of disease
outbreaks and
rapid responses
to control
epidemics is
operational

47,622,453

-

18,910,328

28,712,126
5.1.1. Heightened
surveillance of disease
outbreaks, including
deployment of
technologies such as
mobile telephones
MoH OPM, WHO,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (GEF LDCF, WB Africa,
AfDB, UNDP, MDGAF,
WHO; DFID, USAID, JICA,
NORAD, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector –IT/EWS
experts
1. National Budget (sector,
cross-sectoral); district
budgets
2. Grants, TA, co-financing,
budget support
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
5.1.2 Efficient early
warning systems and
information dissemination
networks put in place
MoH MWE, OPM,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
Same as 5.1.1. Same as 5.1.1.
5.1.3 Rapid response to
epidemics through early
warning systems and
surveillance
MoH Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
Same as 5.1.1. Same as 5.1.1.
6. Strengthen
public health
systems by
building
hospitals and
supplying them
with medicine,
equipment and
well-trained
personnel
6.1
Strengthened
public health
systems to deal
with expected
and potential
health impacts
of climate
change

381,095,172

-

141,827,457

239,267,714
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 90
6.1.1 Health outreach
programmes include areas
that are vulnerable to
climate change related
health risks
MoH Local
Governments,
CSOs,
Communities
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (GEF LDCF, WB Africa,
AfDB, UNDP, MDGAF,
WHO; DFID, USAID, JICA,
NORAD, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutes,
academia, hospitals, clinics
5. Private Sector
1. National Budget (sector,
cross-sectoral, extension
services); district budgets
2. Grants, TA, co-financing,
budget support
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
6.1.2 Climate change
adaptation mainstreamed
into the National Health
Policy and the
Environmental Health
Policy and Human
resource Development
MoH NPA, MWE,
NEMA, Local
Governments,
CSOs
Same as 6.1.1. Same as 6.1.1.
6.1.3 Health centres and
health facilities
built/improved in areas that
are identified as vulnerable
to climate change health
risks
MoH MWE, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
Same as 6.1.1. Same as 6.1.1.
6.1.4 Sufficiently stocked
vaccines and medicine to
treat climate-related
diseases and conditions
MoH National Medical
stores, National
Drug Authority,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs,
Private sector
Same as 6.1.1. with focus
on public-private interface in
collaboration with CSOs,
NGOs
Same as 6.1.1. with focus on
public-private interface in
collaboration with CSOs,
NGOs
6.1.5 Ready transport,
medicine and human
resource in areas (include
remote areas) vulnerable
to climate related risks
MoH MWE, OPM,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
Same as 6.1.1. with focus
on public-private interface in
collaboration with CSOs,
NGOs
Same as 6.1.1. with focus on
public-private interface in
collaboration with CSOs,
NGOs
6.1.6 Recruitment and
training of qualified health
personnel for delivery of
services in vulnerable
communities
MoH Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
Same as 6.1.1. with focus
on training/services from
research/academic partners,
in collaboration with CSOs,
NGOs
Same as 6.1.1. with focus on
training/services from
research/academic partners,
in collaboration with CSOs,
NGOs
6.1.7 Working conditions
improved for health
professionals to ensure
MoH Local
Governments,
Development
Same as 6.1.1. with focus
on public-private interface in
collaboration with CSOs,
Same as 6.1.1. with focus on
public-private interface in
collaboration with CSOs,
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 91
health service delivery
despite climatic stressors
Partners, CSOs NGOs NGOs
7. Make
provisions for a
safe water
chain and
sanitation
facilities to limit
outbreaks of
water-borne
diseases, and
implement
strong public
awareness
programmes to
promote better
hygiene
7.1 Safe water
chain and
sanitation
facilities and
public
awareness
limits outbreaks
of water-borne
diseases

47,356,147

18,990,655

28,365,491

-
7.1.1 Water and sanitary
service needs
assessments completed in
areas vulnerable to climate
change related health risks
MoH MWE, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (GEF LDCF, WB Africa,
AfDB, UNDP, MDGAF,
WHO; DFID, USAID, JICA,
NORAD, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. National Budget (health
sector, public works); district
budgets
2. Grants, TA, co-financing,
budget support
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
7.1.2 Information on the
impacts of floods and other
climate related health
disasters on the provision
of water and sanitary
services used to improve
decision-making
MoH MWE, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
Same as 7.1.1. Same as 7.1.1.
7.1.4 Disaster
management plan devised
to provide water and
sanitary services during
floods and droughts
MoH OPM, MWE,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
Same as 7.1.1. Same as 7.1.1.
7.1.5 Increased public
awareness of clean water,
sanitation and hygiene
relative to climate related
MoH MWE, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
Same as 7.1.1. Same as 7.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 92
health risks
8. Increase the
health
workforce’s
awareness of
the relationship
between
climate change
and human
health
8.1 Health
workforce uses
awareness and
understanding
of relationship
between
climate change
and human
health to
improve
practices and
actions taken

28,485,983

28,485,983

-

-
8.1.1 Increased awareness
of heath workers on the
effects of climate change
on human health
MoH MWE, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (GEF LDCF, WB Africa,
AfDB, UNDP, MDGAF,
WHO; DFID, USAID, JICA,
NORAD, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutes,
academia, hospitals, clinics
5. Private Sector
1. National Budget (health
sector, public works); district
budgets
2. Grants, TA, co-financing,
budget support
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
8.1.2 Health workers’
capacity built on ways to
build climate resilient
health systems and
communities
MoH MWE, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
Same as 8.1.1. Same as 8.1.1.
8.1.3 Public awareness of
relationship between
health and climate change
improved through outreach
programs and promotion of
healthy living
MoH MWE, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
Same as 8.1.1. Same as 8.1.1.
9. Develop
further support
action plans
against
HIV/AIDS to
enhance the
climate change
resilience of
9.1
Strengthened
support action
plans against
HIV/AIDS to
enhance the
resilience of
HIV/AIDS

95,209,689

18,990,655

28,365,491

47,853,543
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 93
HIV/AIDS
affected
persons and
communities
affected
persons and
communities to
climate change
impacts
9.1.1 Increased public
awareness of the causes,
effects and prevention of
HIV
MoH Uganda Aids
Commission,
MoLG, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (GEF LDCF, WB Africa,
AfDB, UNDP, MDGAF,
WHO; DFID, USAID, JICA,
NORAD, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutes,
academia, hospitals, clinics
5. Private Sector
1. National Budget (health
sector, public works); district
budgets
2. Grants, TA, co-financing,
budget support
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
9.1.2 Strengthen HIV/AIDS
counseling among climate
change vulnerable
segment of the population
MoH MoLG, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
Same as 9.1.1. Same as 9.1.1.
9.1.3 Proportion of
morbidity and mortality of
people living with
HIV/AIDS that can be
attributed to climate
hazards and climate
change assessed and
quantified
MoH Uganda Aids
Commission,
MoLG,
Universities nad
research
institutions, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
Same as 9.1.1. with
assistance from health
research institutions,
academia, and private
sector
Same as 9.1.1. with
assistance from health
research institutions,
academia, and private sector
9.1.4 Activities that
enhance the protection of
women and children
against contraction of
HIV/AIDS in climate
change vulnerable regions
supported
MoH Uganda Aids
Commission,
MoLG, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs
Same as 9.1.1. with
emphasis on CSOs, NGOs
with focus on gender and
youth
Same as 9.1.1. with emphasis
on CSOs, NGOs with focus
on gender and youth
Sub-Total
732,694,136

128,262,303

279,027,742

325,404,091
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 94
Sector 9: Energy
Policy priority: To promote sustainable energy access and utilisation as a means of sustainable development in the face of uncertainties related to climate change
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change
(USD)
Timeframe Lead
Implementation
Agency
Responsible
Parties
Possible Climate Finance
Instruments / Sources of
Finance
Possible Financial Tool /
Products
Short term
(1-5 yrs)
Medium Term
(6-10 yrs)
Long- term
(10-15 yrs)
1. Promote and
participate in
water resource
regulation so as
to ensure the
availability of
water for
hydropower
production
1.1 Water
resource
regulation
ensures the
availability of
water for
hydropower
production

54,028,500

45,804,000

8,224,500

-
1.1.1 Improved
understanding across
the water sector of
future water changes
as a result of climate
change
MWE MEMD, NEMA,
NWSC,
Universities and
Research
Institutions
1. Government
2. Donor Support from
MLOs, BLs active in water
management (LDCF,
SCCF, MDGAF, etc)
3. Research orgs,
institutions
4. NGOs, CSOs,
5. Private sector
1. National Sector Budget,
district budgets (water, planning)
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, payment in kind, grants
4. TA, payment in kind
5. direct investment,
concessional loans, TA, risk
management schemes
1.1.2 Water
development and
regulations reviewed
and harmonized to
take into account
anticipated climatic
changes
MWE MEMD, NEMA,
NWSC, CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support from
MLOs, BLs active in water
management (LDCF,
SCCF, MDGAF, etc)
3. Research orgs,
institutions
4. NGOs, CSOs,
1. National Sector Budget,
district budgets (water, planning)
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, payment in kind, grants
4. TA, payment in kind
1.1.3 River water
abstraction controlled
MWE MEMD, NEMA,
NWSC, CSOs
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 95
and efficient utilization
of upstream water
promoted
2. Promote and
participate in
water
catchment
protection as
part of
hydroelectric
power
infrastructure
development
2.1 Water
catchment
systems protect
hydroelectric
power
infrastructure
2.1.1 Afforestation
and reforestation
measures protect
watersheds that
supply major
hydroelectricity
generating sources

60,336,818

-

27,415,000

32,921,818
MWE MEMD, NEMA,
NWSC, CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support from
MLOs, BLs active in water
management (WB, LDCF,
SCCF, MDGAF, CIFs,
FCPF etc)
3. Research orgs,
institutions
4. NGOs, CSOs
5. Private sector
1. National Sector Budget,
district budgets (water, land-use
planning)
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, payment in kind, grants
4. TA, payment in kind
5. Direct investment,
concessional loans, TA, risk
management schemes
3. Diversify
energy sources
by promoting
the use of
alternative
renewable
energy sources
(such as solar,
biomass, minihydro,

geothermal and
wind) that are
less sensitive to
climate change
3.1 Alternative
renewable
energy use
decreases
dependence on
climatesensitive

energy sources

74,044,318

-

41,122,500

32,921,818
3.1.1 Alternative
sources of energy
expanded in urban
and rural areas to
reduce dependence
on biomass energy
MEMD MWE, ERA,
NWSC, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs,
Private Sector
1. Government
2. Donor Support from
MLOs, BLs (WB, LDCF,
CIFs, SCCF, MDGAF,
CIFs, FCPF; GIZ, DFID,
etc)
3. Research orgs,
institutions
4. NGOs, CSOs
5. Private sector
1. National Budget (energy),
feed in tariffs, taxes/subsidies;
district budgets
2. Grants, TA, budget support
3. TA, payment in kind, grants
4. TA, payment in kind
5. Direct investment,
concessional loans, TA
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 96
3.1.2 Research and
economic incentives
make renewable
energy technologies
that are less sensitive
to climate variability
more accessible
MEMD MWE, ERA, Local
Governments,
Universities and
Research
Institutions,
Development
Partners, CSOs,
Private Sector
Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1.
4. Promote
energy-efficient
firewood cook
stoves, solar
and liquefied
petroleum gas
(LPG) cookers
4.1 Household
energy
efficiency and
savings
improved

128,217,500

114,510,00
0

13,707,500

-
4.1.1 Expanded use
of efficient
firewood/charcoal
cooking stoves,
solar and LPG
cookers
MEMD MFPED, MWE,
ERA, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs,
Private Sector
1. Government
2. Donor Support from
MLOs, BLs (WB, LDCF,
CIFs, SCCF, MDGAF,
CIFs, FCPF; FORMIN,
NORAD, DANIDA, SIDA,
SDC, etc)
3. Research orgs,
institutions
4. NGOs, CSOs
5. Private sector
1. National Sector Budget
(energy), district budgets
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, payment in kind, grants
4. TA, payment in kind
5. Concessional loans, TA,
payment in kind
4.1.2 Government
addresses issues of
cost by providing
subsidies or tax
waivers to poor
households
MFPED MEMD, MoLG, 1. Government
2. Donor support
1. National Sector budget
2. Grants, budget support, TA
5. Conduct
research to
determine the
potential
impacts of
climate change
elements on
the country’s
power supply
chain
5.1 Deepened
understanding
of and
improved
response
measure
options to
potential
impacts of
climate change

65,813,864

-

41,122,500

24,691,364
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 97
on the country’s
energy supply
5.1.1 Vulnerability
assessment of the
energy supply chain
to the impacts of
climate change
conducted
MEMD MWE, ERA, Local
Governments,
Universities and
Research
Institutions,
Development
Partners, CSOs,
Private Sector
1. Government
2. Donor Support from
MLOs, BLs (WB, LDCF,
CIFs, SCCF, MDGAF,
CIFs; DFID, GIZ, SIDA,
SDC, etc)
3. Research orgs,
institutions
4. NGOs, CSOs
5. Private sector
1. National Sector Budget
(energy), district budgets
2. Grants, TA, co-financing
3. TA, payment in kind, grants
4. TA, payment in kind
5. Concessional loans, TA,
payment in kind, co-financing
5.1.2 Options
identified for
addressing limitations
in energy sector
response to potential
climate change
impacts
MEMD MWE, ERA, Local
Governments,
Universities and
Research
Institutions,
Development
Partners, CSOs,
Private Sector
Same as 5.1.1. Same as 5.1.1.
5.1.3 Awareness
raised and capacity
built among energy
professionals to
address climate
change concerns
MEMD MWE, ERA, Local
Governments,
Universities and
Research
Institutions,
Development
Partners, CSOs,
Private Sector
Same as 5.1.1. Same as 5.1.1.
5.1.4 Energy planning
and infrastructure
design integrates
climate change
MEMD MWE, NPA,
MoWT, ERA, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, CSOs,
Private Sector
Same as 5.1.1. with direct
investment from private
sector
Same as 5.1.1. with direct
investment from private sector
Sub-Total

382,441,000

160,314,00
0

131,592,000

90,535,000
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 98
Sector 10: Wildlife and Tourism
Policy priority: To ensure the conservation of wildlife resources and plan for improved resilience of tourism resources and infrastructure to climate change
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change
(USD)
Timeframe Lead
Implement
ation
Agency
Responsible
Parties
Possible Climate Finance
Instruments / Sources of Finance
Possible Financial Tool / Products
Short term
(1-5 yrs)
Medium
Term (6-10
yrs)
Long- term
(10-15 yrs)
1. Develop a
national wildlife
adaptation
strategy that
includes wellassessed
climate
change
adaptation
strategies
1.1 National
wildlife
adaptation
strategy
includes
robust climate
change
adaptation
strategies

4,275,146

2,273,800

2,001,346

-
1.1.1 Current wildlife
conservation policies
and activities reviewed
for their relevance
and/or contributions
toward climate change
adaptation
Ministry of
Tourism,
Wildlife and
Heritage
MWE, UWA,
NEMA, CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs (GEF,
WB, AF, ICI, UNDP, UNEP; DANIDA,
DFID, SDC, SIDA etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (CI, IUCN, WWF,
TNC, etc)
4. Research institutes, academia
5. Private Sector
1. National Sector Budget
2. Grants, TA, co-financing
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, co-financing
1.1.2 Appropriate
adaptation
needs/options
established for wildlife
based on assessment
of likely impacts due to
climate change
Ministry of
Tourism,
Wildlife and
Heritage
MWE, UWA,
NEMA, CSOs
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
1.1.3 National Wildlife
Adaptation strategy
developed
Ministry of
Tourism,
Wildlife and
MWE, UWA,
NEMA, CSOs
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 99
Heritage
2. Promote
measures that
preserve the
integrity of
ecosystems that
provide critical
wildlife habitats
and host
endangered
species
2.1
Ecosystems
critical to the
survival of
wildlife in light
of climate
change are
preserved and
protected

2,104,544

-

667,115

1,437,429
2.1.2 Species
conservation efforts
(reassessed and)
strengthened to
increase their
contribution toward
resilience to climate
change impacts
Ministry of
Tourism,
Wildlife and
Heritage
MWE, UWA,
NEMA, CSOs
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
2.1.3 Community
wildlife conservancies
formed and sufficiently
supported, especially
for endangered species
Ministry of
Tourism,
Wildlife and
Heritage
MWE, UWA,
NEMA, CSOs
Same as 1.1.1. with emphasis on
local CSOs, NGOs supporting
community resource management
Same as 1.1.1. with emphasis on
local CSOs, NGOs supporting
community resource management
2.1.4 Carrying capacity
of rangelands improved
Ministry of
Tourism,
Wildlife and
Heritage
MWE, UWA,
NEMA, CSOs
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
2.1.5 Rangelands and
other wildlife habitats
monitored and
remediated
Ministry of
Tourism,
Wildlife and
Heritage
MWE, UWA,
NEMA, Local
Governments
CSOs
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
3. Develop park
management
practices that will
enable wildlife to
adapt to the
changing climate
3.1
Sustainable
park
management
improves
adaptation of
wildlife to the
changing
climate

7,032,346

-

2,001,346

5,031,000
3.1.1 Park management
plans and activities
integrate climate
change into the
Ministry of
Tourism,
Wildlife and
Heritage
MWE, UWA,
NEMA, Local
Governments
CSOs,
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs (GEF,
WB, AF, ICI, UNDP, UNEP; DANIDA,
1. National Sector Budget, district
and community budgets
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 100
management of
protected areas
communities DFID, SDC, SIDA etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (CI, IUCN, WWF,
TNC, etc)
2. Grants, TA, co-financing
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
3.1.2 All weather
infrastructure
developed to support
tourism in the country
causes minimal
damage to wildlife
habitats
Ministry of
Tourism,
Wildlife and
Heritage
UWA, MoWT,
MWE, Uganda
Tourism Board,
Local
Governments
CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs (GEF,
WB, AF, ICI, UNDP, UNEP; DANIDA,
DFID, SDC, SIDA etc.)
3. Private Sector
1. National Sector Budget
2. Grants, TA, co-financing,
concessional loans
3. TA, payment in kind, co-financing,
soft loans
4. Encourage
mechanisms of
improving local
vulnerable
populations’
livelihoods using
revenues
generated from
the tourism
industry
4.1 Tourism
industry
revenue is
used to
improve the
livelihoods of
local
vulnerable
populations

3,138,246

1,136,900

2,001,346

-
4.1.1 Current adaptive
capacity of communities
around protected areas
assessed
Ministry of
Tourism,
Wildlife and
Heritage
MWE, UWA,
Uganda
Tourism Board,
Local
Governments
CSOs,
communities
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs (GEF,
WB, AF, ICI, UNDP, UNEP; DANIDA,
DFID, SDC, SIDA etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (CI, IUCN, WWF,
TNC, etc)
4. Research institutes, academia
5. Private Sector
1. National Sector Budget; district
and community budget
2. Grants, TA, co-financing
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, co-financing
4.1.2 Mechanisms and
opportunities for
improving local
vulnerable populations’
livelihoods using
revenues generated
from tourism industry
are identified/devised
Ministry of
Tourism,
Wildlife and
Heritage
UWA, Uganda
Tourism Board,
Local
Governments
CSOs,
communities
Same as 4.1.1. Same as 4.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 101
4.1.3 Participatory
approaches to
rangeland management
used to involve
communities dependent
on wildlife protected
areas
Ministry of
Tourism,
Wildlife and
Heritage
UWA, Uganda
Tourism Board,
Local
Governments
CSOs,
communities
Same as 4.1.1. Same as 4.1.1.
4.1.4 Community
training and awareness
raising conducted to
improve understanding
of options and linkages
between the tourism
industry and local
livelihoods
Ministry of
Tourism,
Wildlife and
Heritage
UWA, Uganda
Tourism Board,
Local
Governments
CSOs,
communities
Same as 4.1.1. Same as 4.1.1.
5. Develop and
diversify tourism
products that are
less sensitive to
climate change,
as an adaptation
and substitute for
the many natural
attractions that
are quickly
disappearing
5.1 The
tourism
industry is
more climate
resilient
through
diversification
of products

7,868,718

2,273,800

2,001,346

3,593,571
5.1.1 Vulnerability of
the tourism sector and
tourism products to
climate change impacts
assessed
Ministry of
Tourism,
Wildlife and
Heritage
UWA, Uganda
Tourism Board,
Universities and
Research
Institutions,
Local
Governments
CSOs,
communities
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs (GEF,
WB, AF, ICI, UNDP, UNEP; DANIDA,
DFID, SDC, SIDA etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (CI, IUCN, WWF,
TNC, etc)
4. Research institutes, academia
5. Private Sector
1. National Sector Budget; district
and community budget
2. Grants, TA, co-financing
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, co-financing
5.1.2 Tourism products
less sensitive to climate
change developed and
promoted
Ministry of
Tourism,
Wildlife and
Heritage
UWA, Uganda
Tourism Board,
Universities and
Research
Institutions,
Local
Governments
Same as 5.1.1. Same as 5.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 102
CSOs,
communities
5.1.3 Domestic tourism
market developed to
cushion the tourism
industry against
spillover effects of
possible mitigation
measures in the
international aviation
industry
Ministry of
Tourism,
Wildlife and
Heritage
UWA, Uganda
Tourism Board,
Local
Governments
CSOs,
communities
Same as 5.1.1. Same as 5.1.1.
5.1.4 Training and
research programs
implemented in tourism
product development
and protected areas
management
Ministry of
Tourism,
Wildlife and
Heritage
UWA, Uganda
Tourism Board,
Universities and
Research
Institutions,
Local
Governments
CSOs,
communities
Same as 5.1.1. Same as 5.1.1.
Sub-Total
24,419,000

5,684,500

8,672,500

10,062,000
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 103
Sector 11: Human settlements and social infrastructure
Policy priority: To promote the urban planning and development of human settlements that are resilient and robust enough to withstand climate change–related risks and hazards
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change
(USD)
Timeframe Lead
Implem
entatio
n
Agency
Responsible
Parties
Possible Climate Finance
Instruments / Sources of
Finance
Possible Financial Tool /
Products
Short
term (1-5
yrs)
Medium
Term (6-10
yrs)
Longterm

(10+ yrs)
1. Promote and
encourage proper
planning of urban
centres in order to
have climate change
resilient urban areas
1.1 Integrated
urban planning
and climate
change resilient
urban centres

4,653,752

-

1,565,484

3,088,268
1.1.1 Assessment of
climate change threats to
formal and informal
settlement patterns and
housing
MoLHU
D
MoLG, NEMA,
KCCA, Local
Governments
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (WB, GEF LDCF,
MDGAF, UN Agencies;
DFID, GIZ, AFD, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. Sector Budget; district
budgets
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
1.1.2 Planning principles
for the improvement of
climate resilience enforced
in the design of urban
centres
MoLHU
D
MoLG, NEMA,
KCCA, Local
Governments
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
1.1.3 Urban and housing
development planning
policies reviewed to take
climate change adaptation
MoLHU
D
MoLG, NEMA,
KCCA, Local
Governments
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 104
needs into account
2. Revise and
harmonize
structural/building
codes and standards,
as well as the training
on such standards,
taking into account
the expected changes
in climate
2.1 Climate
proofed
structural/building
codes and
standards and
capable
personnel to
implement them

2,914,832

1,871,176

1,043,656

-
2.1.1 Structural/building
codes and standards
reviewed and harmonized
to take into account
anticipated climatic
changes
MoLHU
D
MoLG, NEMA,
KCCA, Local
Governments
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (WB, GEF LDCF,
MDGAF, UN Agencies;
DFID, GIZ, AFD, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. Sector Budget; district
budgets
2. Grants, TA, co-financing
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind
2.1.2 Increased technical
capacity of urban
planners, housing
development
professionals, and
decision makers on
climate change resilient
urban development and
management
MoLHU
D
MoLG, KCCA,
Universities,
Local
Governments
Same as 2.1.1. Same as 2.1.1.
3. Improve disaster
preparedness by
increasing the number
of well-equipped
health facilities,
constructing dams
and dykes in floodprone
areas, and
improving disaster
preparedness and
management
knowledge and skills
in regions prone to
3.1 Facilities and
relevant units in
urban and rural
areas prone to
climate risks and
disasters are
equipped and
prepared to deal
with disasters

3,082,197

935,588

1,043,656

1,102,953
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 105
such climatic
disasters
3.1.1 Financial and
technical support provided
to units concerned with
disaster mitigation and
management
OPM MWE,
MoLHUD,
MoLG, KCCA,
Universities,
Local
Governments
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (WB, GEF LDCF,
MDGAF, UN Agencies,
GFDRR; DFID, AFD, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. Sector Budget; district
budgets
2. Grants, TA, co-financing
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing,
risk management,
insurance schemes
3.1.2 Increased knowledge
and capacity to act on
climate related disasters in
areas prone such climatic
hazards
OPM MoLHUD,
MoLG, KCCA,
Universities,
Local
Governments
Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1.
3.1.3 Humans relocated
from disaster prone areas
OPM MoLHUD,
MoLG, KCCA,
Local
Governments
Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1.
3.1.4 Clear delineation of
roles and responsibilities
and functional coordination
systems among relevant
units and facilities
OPM MoLHUD,
MoLG, KCCA,
Local
Governments
1. Government 1. Sector Budget; district
budgets
4. Strengthen housing
development policies,
including subsidies to
low-income
communities
4.1 Housing
development
policies support
low-income
communities
4.1.1 Housing
development policies
strengthened to include
subsidies to low-income
communities

52,183

-

52,183

-
MoLHU
D
MFPED,
MoLG, KCCA,
Local
Governments
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (WB, GEF LDCF,
MDGAF, UN Agencies;
DFID, AFD, SIDA, etc.)
1. Sector Budget (housing,
DRR), subsidies, taxes; district
budgets
2. Grants, TA, co-financing
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 106
5. Establish insurance
schemes to provide
reparations in regions
affected by climatic
disasters
5.1 Insurance
schemes provide
sufficient
reparations in
regions affected
by climatic
disasters
5.1.1 Insurance schemes
established for reparations
to persons and
communities established
affected by climatic
disasters

2,367,199

-

1,043,656

1,323,543
MFPED MoLHUD,
MoLG, KCCA,
Local
Governments,
Private Sector
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (WB, GEF LDCF,
MDGAF, UN Agencies,
GFDRR; DFID, AFD, etc.)
3. Private Sector
1. Sector Budget; district
budgets
2. Grants, TA, co-financing
3. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing,
risk management,
insurance schemes
6. Develop climate
change awareness
programmes involving
all communities and
stakeholders
6.1 Climate
change aware
communities and
stakeholders

140,419

-

52,183

88,236
6.1.1 Community based
climate change awareness
raising and sensitization
campaigns carried out
MWE MoLHUD
MoLG, KCCA,
Municipalities,
Local
Governments,
CSOs,
Communities
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (WB, GEF LDCF,
MDGAF, UN Agencies,
GFDRR; DFID, AFD, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. Sector Budget; district
budgets
2. Grants, TA, co-financing
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
6.1.2 Gender focal points,
women and
men self-help groups in
rural and
urban areas capable of
environmental
management
and disaster risk
management
MWE MoLHUD,
MLGSD,
MoLG, KCCA,
Municipalities,
Local
Governments,
CSOs
Same as 6.1.1. with
emphasis on NGOs and
CSOs active on gender
equity
Same as 6.1.1. with emphasis
on NGOs and CSOs active on
gender equity
Resident
associations participate in
and encourage awareness
raising for community
response to
emergencies and climatic
MoLHU
D
MLGSD,
MWE, MoLG,
Local
Governments,
CSOs
1. Government
2. NGOs, CSOs
1. District budgets, community
budget
2. TA, grants, payment in kind
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 107
changes
7. Disseminate
climate-change and
early-warning
information in local
languages to improve
community disaster
preparedness
7.1 Improved
dissemination of
climate-change
and early-warning
information and
community
disaster
preparedness

187,118

187,118

-

-
7.1.1 Communication of
climate change and early
warning systems
information supported for
the purposes of disaster
preparedness
MWE OPM, MAAIF,
MoLG, Local
Governments,
CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (WB, GEF LDCF,
MDGAF, UN Agencies,
GFDRR; DFID, AFD, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. Sector Budget; district
budgets
2. Grants, TA, co-financing
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
8. Diversify economic
activities to improve
the resilience of rural
communities
dependent on climatesensitive
sectors such
as agriculture and
livestock rearing
8.1 Diversified
economic
activities and
increased
community
resilience to
climate change
impacts
8.1.1 Rural communities
dependent on climatesensitive
sectors have new
or improved options to
increase their income
sources
- - - MAAIF Ministry of
Trade,
Industry and
Cooperatives,
MoLG, Local
Governments,
CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (WB, GEF LDCF,
MDGAF, UN Agencies,
GFDRR, ICI; DFID, AFD,
etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (CARE,
IUCN, etc)
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. Sector Budgets; district
budgets
2. Grants, TA, co-financing
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 108
8.1.2 Means for rural
communities to
communicate and
exchange on ideas and
options for livelihoods
diversification supported
and encouraged
MAAIF Ministry of
Trade,
Industry and
Cooperatives,
MoLG, Local
Governments,
CSOs
Same as 8.1.1. Same as 8.1.1.
9. Create “green
spaces” in urban
centres to moderate
temperatures and
provide fresh air for
healthy living
9.1 New and
enhanced green
spaces in urban
centres moderate
temperatures and
provide fresh air
for healthy living

239,300

187,118

52,183

-
9.1.1 Collaboration
between urban planning
department(s) and other
relevant agencies
enhanced to ensure that
urban areas have
adequate green places
and leisure parks
MoLHU
D
MoLG, KCCA,
NEMA, MoH,
MWE, MoLG,
Local
Governments,
Private Sector
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (WB, GEF LDCF,
MDGAF, UN Agencies, ICI,
ICF; AFD, NORAD, GIZ,
etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (IIED, Pact
etc.)
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. Sector Budgets (planning,
infrastructure); district budgets
2. Grants, TA, co-financing
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing,
direct investment
9.1.2 Sustainable waste
management supported
by enforcing appropriate
means and approved
interventions
KCCA/
Local
Govern
ments
MWE, MoLG,
MoH, CSOs,
Communities,
Private Sector
Same as 9.1.1. Same as 9.1.1.
9.1.3 Increased scale of
tree planting and
afforestation in urban
centres and rural
homesteads
KCCA/
Local
Govern
ments
MWE, CSOs,
Communities,
Private Sector
Same as 9.1.1. Same as 9.1.1.
Sub-Total
13,637,000

3,181,000

4,853,000

5,603,000
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 109
Sector 12: Disaster Risk Management
Policy priority: To ensure disaster mitigation and adequate preparedness for climate change–induced risks, hazards and disasters
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due
to climate
change
(USD)
Timeframe Lead
Imple
mentat
ion
Agenc
y
Responsible
Parties
Possible Climate
Finance Instruments /
Sources of Finance
Possible Financial Tool /
Products Short term
(1-5 yrs)
Medium
Term (6-10
yrs)
Long- term
(10-15
yrs)
1. Develop
and
implement a
climate
change–
induced
disaster risk
management
strategy
1.1
Climate
change–
induced
disaster
risk
managem
ent
strategy
establishe
d

305,995

305,995

-

-
1.1.1 DRR concept
promoted by addressing
the five priority areas of
the Hyogo Framework
for Action (HFA) and
implementing the
African regional DRR
strategy and program of
action
OPM MWE, MLGSD,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, SCOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs
and BLs active in DRR
(GFDRR, WB, GEF LDCF,
SCCF, ICF, UNISDR,
other UN Agencies)
3. NGOs, CSOs active in
DRR (e.g. GNDR, RCRC)
4. Research institutes
(IDS, IISD, IIED, etc)
5. Private sector –
financial and other
businesses
1. National budget
(Sectoral), tax
(dis)incentives
2. Grants, TA
3. Payment in kind, grants,
TA
4. TA, grants, payment in
kind
5. Risk management,
insurance schemes,
soft/concessional loans
(infrastructure, other
services), TA
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 110
1.1.2 Country specific
climate-related disaster
risk reduction and
management scheme
developed
OPM MWE, MLGSD,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, SCOs
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
2. Create an
appropriate
legal and
regulatory
framework for
disaster
management
2.1
Appropriat
e legal
and
regulatory
framework
for
disaster
managem
ent in
place
2.1.1 Legal and
regulatory framework
established for disaster
risk management

174,854

174,854

-
OPM MWE, MLGSD,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, SCOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs
and BLs active in DRR
(GFDRR, WB, GEF LDCF,
SCCF, ICF, UNISDR,
other UN Agencies)
3. NGOs, CSOs active in
DRR (e.g. GNDR, RCRC)
4. Research institutes
(IDS, IISD, IIED, etc)
1. National budget
(Sectoral)
2. Grants, TA
3. Payment in kind, grants,
TA
4. TA, grants, payment in
kind
3. Promote
vulnerability
risk mapping
(including the
social and
economic
impacts of
climate
change) of the
whole country
and all sectors
3.1 Social
and
economic
impacts of
climate
change
better
understoo
d from
climate
change
vulnerabili
ty risk
maps for
entire
country

510,511

87,427

423,084

-
3.1.1 Vulnerability
assessment, risk and
hazard mapping of
entire country and all
sectors undertaken,
including social and
economic impacts of
OPM/
MWE
MAAIF, MEMD,
MoWT, MoH,
MoGSD, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, SCOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs
and BLs active in DRR
(GFDRR, WB, GEF LDCF,
SCCF, ICF, UNISDR,
other UN Agencies)
1. National budget
(Sectoral), tax
(dis)incentives
2. Grants, TA
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 111
climate change
3. NGOs, CSOs active in
DRR (e.g. GNDR, RCRC)
4. Research institutes
(IDS, IISD, IIED, etc)
5. Private sector –
financial and other
businesses
3. Payment in kind, grants,
TA
4. TA, grants, payment in
kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
3.1.2 Climatic risk
assessment and
monitoring widely
practiced with use of
vulnerability risk
mapping
OPM/
MWE
Meteorology
Authority,
MAAIF, MEMD,
MoWT, MoH,
MoGSD, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, SCOs
Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1.
4. Improve
early-warning
systems and
preparedness
to avoid or
minimize the
adverse
impacts of
climate
change
4.1 Earlywarning

systems
and
climate
change
disaster
preparedn
ess in
place

1,012,261

437,135

-

575,126
4.1.1 Acquisition and
dissemination of
weather and climate
information for improved
early warning systems
OPM/
MWE
MAAIF, MEMD,
MoWT, MoH,
MoGSD, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, SCOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs
and BLs active in DRR
(GFDRR, WB, GEF LDCF,
SCCF, ICF, UNISDR,
other UN Agencies)
3. NGOs, CSOs active in
DRR (e.g. GNDR, RCRC)
4. Research institutes
(IDS, IISD, IIED, etc)
1. National budget
(Sectoral), tax
(dis)incentives
2. Grants, TA
3. Payment in kind, grants,
TA
4. TA, grants, payment in
kind
5. TA, payment in kind, co-
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 112
5. Private sector –
financial and other
businesses
financing
4.1.2 Emergency
response and post
disaster recovery
systems developed
(and/or strengthened) to
avert or minimize
adverse impacts of
disasters
OPM/
MWE
MAAIF, MEMD,
MoWT, MoH,
MoGSD, Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, SCOs
Same as 4.1.1. Same as 4.1.1.
5. Strengthen
climate
change–
induced
disaster
management
institutions at
the national
and local
levels to
reduce
causality and
ensure
preparedness
5.1
Strengthe
ned
disaster
managem
ent
institutions
at the
national
and local
levels

3,933,341

-

1,057,711

2,875,630
5.1.1 Climate change
and disaster-relevant
institutions and
committees
strengthened at the
national and local levels
to reduce causality and
ensure preparedness
OPM MWE, MLGSD,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, SCOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs
and BLs active in DRR
(GFDRR, WB, GEF LDCF,
SCCF, ICF, UNISDR,
other UN Agencies)
3. NGOs, CSOs active in
DRR (e.g. GNDR, RCRC)
4. Research institutes
(IDS, IISD, IIED, etc)
5. Private sector –
financial and other
businesses
1. National budget
(Sectoral), tax
(dis)incentives
2. Grants, TA
3. Payment in kind, grants,
TA
4. TA, grants, payment in
kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 113
5.1.2 Improved
management of transboundary
and crosscultural
natural
resource-based conflict
resulting from stress on
water and pasture for
pastoral communities
OPM MWE, MLGSD,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, SCOs
Same as 5.1.1. with
support form NGOs and
CSOs focused on crossboundary
resource
management
Same as 5.1.1. with
support form NGOs and
CSOs focused on crossboundary
resource
management
6. Provide
basic needs to
victims of
climate
change–
induced
disasters in
the form of
financial
assistance or
donations of
food, goods
and services
as the need
arises
6.1 Basic
needs met
for victims
of climate
change–
induced
disasters
6.1.1 Systems
established for transfer
of financial assistance or
donations of food, goods
and services to disaster
victims as the need
arises
- - - OPM MWE, MLGSD,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, SCOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs
and BLs active in DRR
(GFDRR, WB, GEF LDCF,
SCCF, ICF, UNISDR,
other UN Agencies)
3. NGOs, CSOs active in
DRR (e.g. GNDR, RCRC)
4. Research institutes
(IDS, IISD, IIED, etc)
5. Private sector –
financial and other
businesses
1. National budget
(Sectoral)
2. Grants, TA, budget
support
3. Payment in kind, grants,
TA
4. TA, grants, payment in
kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing,
donations
7. Encourage
the formation
of resident
associations
that can
respond to
emergencies,
and involve
them in key
decision
making to
reduce risks.
7.1
Resident
associatio
ns
establishe
d that can
plan for
and
respond to
emergenci
es

809,481

174,854

634,626

-
7.1.1 Community-based
approach to disaster risk
reduction and climate
change adaptation
promoted
OPM MWE, MLGSD,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, SCOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs
and BLs active in DRR
(GFDRR, WB, GEF LDCF,
1. District and community
budgets
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 114
SCCF, ICF, UNISDR,
other UN Agencies)
3. NGOs, CSOs active in
community-based DRR
(e.g. GNDR, RCRC)
2. Grants, TA
3. Payment in kind, grants,
TA
7.1.2 Resident
associations prioritize
the special needs of
vulnerable groups such
as children, women,
youth, elderly and other
specific groups
OPM MWE, MLGSD,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, SCOs
Same as 7.1.1. with
engagement of CSOs and
NGOs focused on gender
equity and social welfare
Same as 7.1.1. with
engagement of CSOs and
NGOs focused on gender
equity and social welfare
8. Strengthen
the National
Emergency
Coordination
and
Operations
Centre and
establish a
national
contingency
fund
8.1 A
strengthen
ed
National
Emergenc
y
Coordinati
on and
Operation
s Centre
and a
national
contingen
cy fund

2,898,793

1,748,541

-

1,150,252
8.1.1 National
Emergency
Coordination and
Operations Centre
strengthened for
effective response to
emergencies
OPM MWE, MLGSD,
Development
Partners, SCOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs
and BLs active in DRR
(GFDRR, WB, GEF LDCF,
SCCF, ICF, UNISDR,
other UN Agencies)
3. NGOs, CSOs active in
DRR (e.g. GNDR, RCRC)
4. Research institutes
(IDS, IISD, IIED, etc)
5. Private sector –
1. National budget
(Sectoral)
2. Grants, TA, budget
support
3. Payment in kind, grants,
TA
4. TA, grants, payment in
kind
5. TA, payment in kind, co-
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 115
financial and other
businesses
financing, donations
8.1.2 National
contingency fund
established
OPM MWE, MLGSD,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, SCOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs
and BLs active in DRR
(GFDRR, WB, GEF LDCF,
SCCF, ICF, UNISDR,
other UN Agencies)
3. Private sector –
financial and other
businesses
1. National budget
(Sectoral)
2. Grants, TA, budget
support
3. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing,
donations
9. Promote
the
development
of innovative
insurance
schemes to
insure
households,
institutions
and
businesses
against the
destruction
caused by
extreme
weather
events and
disasters
9.1
Innovative
insurance
schemes
insure
household
s,
institutions
and
businesse
s against
the
destructio
n caused
by
extreme
weather
events
and
disasters

2,498,839

-

2,115,422

383,417
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 116
9.1.1 Innovative
insurance schemes
developed and
promoted to insure
households, institutions,
and businesses against
the destruction caused
by extreme weather
events and disasters
OPM MWE, MLGSD,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, SCOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs
and BLs active in DRR
(GFDRR, WB, GEF LDCF,
SCCF, ICF, UNISDR,
other UN Agencies)
3. Private sector –
financial and other
businesses
1. National budget
(Sectoral)
2. Grants, TA, budget
support
3. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing,
donations, risk
management, insurance
schemes
9.1.2 Decision-support
mechanisms established
and outreach conducted
to help target actors to
assess risks and
understand (regional)
contingency plans
? OPM MWE, MLGSD,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, SCOs
Same as 9.1.1. with
additional support from
CSOs, NGOs
Same as 9.1.1. with
additional support from
CSOs, NGOs
Sub-Total
12,144,075

2,928,806

4,230,843

4,984,426
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 117
Sector 13: Vulnerable Groups
Policy priority: To give special attention to the improvement of the resilience of vulnerable groups to climate change
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change (USD)
Timeframe Lead
Implem
entatio
n
Agency
Responsible
Parties
Possible Climate Finance
Instruments / Sources of
Finance
Possible Financial Tool /
Products
Short term
(1-5 yrs)
Medium Term
(6-10 yrs)
Long- term
(10-15 yrs)
1. Put in place
social protection
mechanisms to
ensure that
vulnerable groups
and communities
are empowered to
effectively and
adequately adapt to
the impacts of
climate change
1.1
Vulnerable
groups and
communities
are
empowered
to adapt to
the impacts
of climate
change

1,764,225

585,761

846,169

332,295
1.1.1 A consolidated
social protection
fund targeting
vulnerable groups
(aged, destitute
children
and the disabled) is
put in place
MLGSD
/MWE
MWE, Local
Governments,
CSOs,
Communities
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (GEF LDCF, WB, AF,
ICI, UNDP, UNEP;
IDRC/CIDA, DANIDA, AFD,
etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (CARE,
Pact, etc)
1. National Sector Budget;
district and community budget
2. Grants, TA, co-financing
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
1.1.2 Provisions made
to ensure that
vulnerable groups and
communities are
empowered to
effectively and
adequately adapt to
the impacts of climate
change
MLGSD
/MWE
MWE, Local
Governments,
CSOs,
Communities
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (GEF LDCF, WB, AF,
ICI, UNDP, UNEP;
IDRC/CIDA, DANIDA, AFD,
etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs (CARE,
Pact, etc)
4. Research institutes,
academia
1. National Sector Budget;
district and community budget
2. Grants, TA, co-financing
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 118
5. Private Sector
1.1.3. Social protection
programmes for
vulnerable
communities,
households and
individuals including
women, children,
youth and others
strengthened
MLGSD
/MWE
MWE, Local
Governments,
CSOs,
Communities
Same as 1.1.1. with
additional support from
CSOs, NGOs active in
gender equity and social
welfare
Same as 1.1.1. with additional
support from CSOs, NGOs
active in gender equity and
social welfare
2. Support
vulnerable groups
to engage in
sustainable
adaptation
mechanisms to
cope with climate
change impacts
2.1 Climate
change
adaptation
mechanisms
appropriate
for
vulnerable
groups
2.1.1 Vulnerable
groups supported and
encouraged to engage
in sustainable
adaptation
mechanisms to cope
with climate change
impacts

1,145,887

390,507

423,084
MLGSD
/MWE
MWE, Local
Governments,
CSOs,
Communities
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
3. Integrate climate
change–related
issues into
economic policies
and action plans
that address the
needs of vulnerable
groups
3.1
Economic
policies and
action plans
that address
the climate
change
needs of
vulnerable
groups

715,965

292,881

423,084
-
3.1.1 Climate change
issues integrated into
economic policies and
action plans that
address the needs of
vulnerable groups
MLGSD
/MWE
MWE, Local
Governments,
CSOs,
Communities
Same as 1.1.1.
Same as 1.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 119
3.1.2 Access ensured
for women and
children to health
facilities and
treatments that build
their resilience to
climate change related
disease outbreaks
MoH MLGSD, MWE,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners,
CSOs
Same as 1.1.1. with
additional support from
CSOs, NGOs active in
gender equity and social
welfare
Same as 1.1.1. with additional
support from CSOs, NGOs
active in gender equity and
social welfare
Sub-Total
3,626,076

1,269,149

1,692,337

664,590
TOTAL
ADAPTATION
COSTS

2,918,940,799

671,089,420

1,072,804,749

1,175,046,630
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 120
5.3 Mitigation Strategy Matrix
Sector: 1: LULUCF (land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry)
Policy priority (Forestry)
 To continue and step up efforts targeted at effective forest management
 To make a deliberate departure from “business as usual” by formulating sectoral policies that address issues associated with increased unit productivity in plantation forestry
 To promote and develop afforestation and reforestation programmes in non-forested areas and intensify afforestation and reforestation efforts in other areas
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change
(US$)
Timeframe Lead
Implem
entatio
n
Agency
Responsible
Parties
Possible Climate Finance
Instruments / Sources of
Finance
Possible Financial Tool /
Products
Short
term (1-5
yrs)
Medium
Term (6-10
yrs)
Long- term
(10-15 yrs)
1. Ensure that
the forest
sector
continues
providing
global services
in mitigation of
climate
change while
supporting
sustainable
development
needs of the
country
1.1
Forests
sustainabl
y
managed
to mitigate
climate
change

4,335,404

579,750

3,755,654

-
1.1.1 Public
awareness
increased on
opportunities and
requirements for
carbon financing
facilities in the
forestry sector
MWE/
FSSD
NFA, Private
Sector,
Development
Partners,
CSOs/NGOs,
District
Authorities,
Local
Communities
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (FIP, GCCA, FCPF, WB
CIFs, GEF, UNDP, UNEP,
FAO; NORAD, FORMIN, GIZ,
DFID, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutions,
academia
1. National budget, district and
community budgets
2. Grants, co-financing, TA
3. TA, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, co-financing, payment in
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 121
5. Public Sector kind
1.1.2 Afforestation
and reforestation
with appropriate tree
species in rural and
urban areas
promoted to mitigate
climate change
MWE /
FSSD
NFA, Private
Sector,
Development
Partners,
CSOs/NGOs,
District
Authorities,
DFS, Local
Communities
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
1.1.3 Appropriate
NAMAs developed
for the forestry
sector
MWE /
FSSD
NFA, Private
Sector,
Development
Partners,
CSOs/NGOs,
District
Authorities,
DFS, Local
Communities
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (FIP, GCCA, FCPF, WB
CIFs, GEF, UNDP, UNEP,
FAO; NORAD, FORMIN, GIZ,
DFID, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutions,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. National budget
2. Grants, co-financing, TA
3. TA, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind
1.1.4 Incentives put
in place for private
sector to increase
forest cover
MWE/
FSSD
NFA, DFS,
Private Sector,
Development
Partners
1. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (FIP; GCCA, FCPF, WB
CIFs, GEF, UNDP, UNEP,
FAO; NORAD, FORMIN, GIZ,
DFID, etc)
2. Private Sector
1. Grants, co-financing, TA
2. TA, co-financing, payment in
kind, carbon finance
1.1.5 Proper law
enforcement to
ensure sustainable
use of existing
forests
MWE/
FSSD
NFA, DFS,
Private Sector,
Development
Partners
1. Government
3. NGOs, CSOs
1. National budget, district and
community budgets
2. TA, payment in kind
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 122
2. Provide
financial
support,
technology
transfer and
provision for
capacity
building,
especially to
forestdependent

communities
2.1
Strengthe
ned
capacity
for and
resources
devoted to
expanding
coverage
of nondegraded

forests
2.1.1 Capacity
enhanced for local
communities to
manage and
sustainably use
forest resources

6,358,168

724,688

5,633,481

-
MWE/
FSSD
Private Sector,
Development
Partners,
CSOs/NGOs,
DFS,
Universities,
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (FIP, GCCA, FCPF, WB
CIFs, GEF, UNDP, UNEP,
FAO; NORAD, FORMIN, GIZ,
DFID, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutions,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. National budget
2. Grants, co-financing, TA, PES
3. TA, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing,
carbon finance
3. Provide
incentives for
farmers to
establish
commercial
woodlot
plantations,
including periurban

plantations
3.1
Expansion
of
extensive
woodlot
plantation
s with
higher
carbon
stocks

26,139,404

434,813

5,633,481

20,071,111
3.1.1 Establish
appropriate
incentive schemes
for farmers to
engage in
commercial woodlot
plantations,
including per-urban
plantations
MWE/
FSSD
DFS, Private
Sector,
Development
Partners,
NGOs, District
Authorities
Districts,
CSOs/NGOs
Same as 2.1.1. with emphasis
on public-private interface
Same as 2.1.1. with emphasis on
public-private interface
3.1.2 Establishment
of commercial forest
plantations and
agro-forestry
forestry practices
supported to
mitigate climate
change
MWE/
FSSD
NFA, DFS,
Private Sector,
Development
Partners,
NGOs, District
Authorities
Districts,
CSOs/NGOs
Same as 2.1.1. with emphasis
on public-private interface
Same as 2.1.1. with emphasis on
public-private interface
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 123
3.1.3 Conservation
of natural forests
and protected areas
supported to
sequestrate carbon
MWE/
FSSD
NFA, UWA,
DFS, Private
Sector,
Development
Partners,
NGOs, District
Authorities
Districts,
CSOs/NGOs
Same as 2.1.1. with emphasis
on public-private interface
Same as 2.1.1. with emphasis on
public-private interface
Sub-Total
36,832,976

1,739,250

15,022,615

20,071,111
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 124
Sector: 1: LULUCF (Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry)
Policy priority (Land Use and Land Use Change):
 To promote and enforce urban and rural planning of settlements
 To control and monitor land development and other land-use changes in a sustainable manner so as to better manage GHG sources and sinks
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change
(millions of
US$)
Timeframe Lead
Implementation
Agency
Responsible
Parties
Possible Climate Finance
Instruments / Sources of
Finance
Possible Financial Tool / Products
Short term
(1-5 yrs)
Medium
Term (6-
10 yrs)
Longterm

(10=15
yrs)
1. Demarcate
areas reserved
for industrial use
and other land
development
1.1 Industrial
and other land
use zoning
enforced for
different
sectors, taking
into account
potential for
reduced GHG
emissions
1.1.1 Appropriate
land use planning
and zoning
measures
introduced that
account for
emissions impact

1,733,268

353,333

632,935

1,733,268
MLHUD MWE (FSSD),
NFA, DFS,
KCCA, ULC,
BLB, DLB,
Districts,
Municipalities,
Local
Communities
Private Sector
Development
Partners
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(FIP, GCCA, FCPF, WB CIFs,
GEF, UNDP, UNEP, FAO;
NORAD, FORMIN, GIZ, DFID,
etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutions,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. National budget, district budgets
(planning)
2. Grants, co-financing, TA, budget
support
3. TA, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, co-financing
2. Strengthen
urban
development
authorities by
providing funds
and the ability to
enforce
regulations
2.1 Authorities
manage
sustainable
urban land
development
and use for
GHG emissions
reduction
2.1.1
Development
and/or revision of
(new) plans and
regulations for
lower emission
urban
development

352,312

141,333

210,978

-
MLHUD MWE (FSSD),
NFA, DFS,
KCCA, ULC,
BLB, DLB,
Districts,
Municipalities,
Local
Communities
Private Sector
Development
Partners
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(FIP, GCCA, FCPF, WB CIFs,
GEF, UNDP, UNEP, FAO;
NORAD, FORMIN, GIZ, DFID,
etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutions,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. National budget, district budgets
(planning)
2. Grants, co-financing, TA, budget
support
3. TA, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, co-financing
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 125
3. Promote
human resource
development in
land
management
3.1 Increased
human capacity
for improved
sustainable land
development
and use for
reduced GHG
emissions
3.1.1 Extensive
promotion of and
training on urban
and rural land
use planning

641,420

141,333

126,587

373,500
MLHUD KCCA, ULC,
Districts,
Municipalities,
Development
Partners
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(FIP, GCCA, FCPF, WB CIFs,
GEF, UNDP, UNEP, FAO;
NORAD, FORMIN, GIZ, DFID,
etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutions,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. National budget, district budgets
(planning)
2. Grants, co-financing, TA, budget
support
3. TA, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, co-financing
Sub-Total
2,727,000

636,000

970,500

1,120,500
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 126
Sector: 1: LULUCF (Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry)
Policy priority (REDD+): To continue to actively promote joint Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+)
efforts involving the public and private sectors
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change
(millions of
US$)
Timeframe Lead
Implementation
Agency
Responsible Parties Possible Climate
Finance Instruments /
Sources of Finance
Possible Financial Tool /
Products
Short term
(1-5 yrs)
Medium
Term (6-10
yrs)
Long- term
(10-15 yrs)
1. Conserve the
existing forests
and implement
REDD+
programmes to
access
additional funds
from carbon
markets
1.1 Capacity
to implement
REDD+
developed in
Uganda at
different
levels, from
national to
local

18,156,832

4,638,000

6,828,462

6,690,370
1.1.1 R-PP
developed and
refined
MWE/ FSSD CCU, NFA, UWA, DFS,
Universities and research
institutions, Development
Partners, District
Authorities, Private
sector, NGOs/CSOs
1. Donor Support –
MLOs, BLs (FIP, GCCA,
FCPF, WB CIFs, GEF,
UNDP, UNEP, FAO;
NORAD, FORMIN, GIZ,
DFID, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutions,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. Grants, co-financing, TA
3. TA, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
1.1.2 Readiness
package
submitted to
FCPF (including
capacity
developed,
REDD+ strategy,
institutional set up
MWE/ FSSD CCU, NFA, UWA, DFS,
Universities and research
institutions, Development
Partners, District
Authorities, Private
sector, NGOs/CSOs
1. Government with donor
support
1. sector budget, grants
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 127
for benefit sharing,
proper
governance,
putting, MRVs in
place, etc.)
1.1.3 Training and
other capacity
building measures
taken to improve
understanding of
and access to
REDD+
funding/carbon
markets
MWE/ FSSD CCU, NFA, UWA, DFS,
Universities and research
institutions, Development
Partners, District
Authorities, Private
sector, NGOs/CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support –
MLOs, BLs (FIP, GCCA,
FCPF, WB CIFs, GEF,
UNDP, UNEP, FAO;
NORAD, FORMIN, GIZ,
DFID, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutions,
academia
1. National budget, district
budgets (planning)
2. Grants, co-financing, TA,
budget support
3. TA, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
2. Set-up
mechanisms to
regulate the
implementation
of REDD+
projects and the
set-up of
equitable benefit
sharing schemes
2.1 A
functioning
REDD
scheme in
Uganda with
appropriate
funding

18,248,135

5,565,600

6,828,462

5,854,074
2.1.1 REDD pilot
schemes
developed and
implemented
MWE/ FSSD/CCU NFA, DFS, Development
Partners, Private sector,
NGOs/CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support –
MLOs, BLs (FIP, GCCA,
FCPF, WB CIFs, GEF,
UNDP, UNEP, FAO;
NORAD, FORMIN, GIZ,
DFID, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutions,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. National budget, district
budgets (planning)
2. Grants, co-financing, TA,
budget support
3. TA, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, cofinancing
2.1.2 Systems and
incentives in place
to ensure credible
MWE/ FSSD/CCU NFA, DFS, Development
Partners, Private sector,
NGOs/CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support –
1. National budget, district and
community budgets (planning)
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 128
benefit sharing
scheme
MLOs, BLs (FIP, GCCA,
FCPF, WB CIFs, GEF,
UNDP, UNEP, FAO;
NORAD, FORMIN, GIZ,
DFID, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs
2. Grants, co-financing, TA,
budget support
3. TA, payment in kind
Sub-Total
36,404,967

10,203,600

13,656,923

12,544,444
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 129
Sector 2: Wetlands
Policy priority: Conservation and sustainable use of wetlands
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change
(US$)
Timeframe Lead
Implementation
Agency
Responsible
Parties
Possible Climate Finance
Instruments / Sources of
Finance
Possible Financial Tool / Products
Short term
(1-5 yrs)
Medium
Term (6-
10 yrs)
Longterm

(10+ yrs)
1. Promote and
intensify wetland
protection and
restoration to
enhance sinks of
green house
gases
1.1 Increase
in carbon
stocks
through
wetland
protection and
restoration
1.1.1 Expansion
of wetlands in
the area
mapped and
protected

6,008,313

1,601,559

1,730,605

2,676,148
MWE MWE (WMD),
NEMA, NGOs,
Development
Partners, District
Authorities. Local
Communities
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (GEF, WB, AF; SDC,
SIDA, DFID, GIZ, etc.)
3. NGOs, CSOs
4. Research institutes,
academia
5. Private Sector
1. Sector Budget; district budgets,
community budgets
2. Grants, TA, budget support
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, co-financing
2. Promote
sustainable use of
wetlands
2.1
Sustainable
economic
development
in wetlands
that reduce
GHG
emissions
2.1.1
Sustainable
utilisation of
wetlands by
communities so
the wetlands
continue to offer
global services
of mitigating
climate change

12,553,263

3,523,431

3,677,537

5,352,296
MWE MWE (WMD),
NEMA, NGOs,
Development
Partners, Private
Sector, District
Authorities. Local
Communities
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
Sub-Total
18,561,576

5,124,990

5,408,142

8,028,444
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 130
Sector 3: Agriculture
Policy priority: To mainstream climate change mitigation issues in the efforts underway to promote and improve the management of natural resources, in order to ensure resilient, productive and sustainable agricultural
systems with reduced GHG emissions
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change
(US$)
Timeframe Lead
Implementation
Agency
Responsible
Parties
Possible Climate
Finance Instruments
/ Sources of Finance
Possible Financial Tool /
Products
Short term
(1-5 yrs)
Medium
Term (6-10
yrs)
Long- term
(10-15 yrs)
1. Promote and
encourage
conservation
agriculture and
ecologically
compatible
cropping systems
and agricultural
practices to
increase GHG
sinks
1.1 Widespread
use of agricultural
practices that
reduce GHG
release from soils

55,314,102

12,651,429

22,291,111

20,371,563
1.1.1 Minimum
tillage and other
conservation
agricultural
techniques
adopted by
farmers to
maximise carbon
storage.
MAAIF NARO, NEMA,
Local
Governments,
Research
Institutes,
Development
Partners, District
Authorities, Local
communities
1. National and local
Government
2. Donor Support –
MLOS, BLs active in
agriculture (GEF
SCCF, LDCF, WB,
UNDP, FAO, MDGAF;
SIDA, GIZ, DFID,
SDC etc.)
3. Agric. NGOs, CSOs
1. Sector Budget (agriculture /
extension services), district
budgets
2 grants, concessional loans,
co-financing
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 131
4. International and
regional Institutions,
Research Orgs
working on agriculture
(e.g. IFPRI, CGIAR)
5. Private Sector,
businesses
3. TA, payment in kind
4. Payment in kind, grants, TA
5. TA, payment in kind
1.1.2 Organic
agriculture
promoted as a
mechanism of
reducing GHG
emissions from
agrictlure
MAAIF MWE, NARO,
Universities and
Research
Institutes,
Development
Partners, CSOs
Same as 1.1.1 Same as 1.1.1
1.1.3 Wider use of
ecologically
compatible
cropping systems
as ways of
increasing carbon
storage
MAAIF MWE, NARO,
Universities and
Research
Institutes,
Development
Partners, CSOs
Same as 1.1.1 Same as 1.1.1
1.1.4 Agriculture
projects
developed and
registered for
carbon markets
MAAIF MWE, NARO,
Universities,
Research
Institutes,
Development
Partners, farmers
Government Sector budget
1.1.5 Development
NAMAs for the
agricultural sector
supported.
MWE MAAIF, NARO,
Universities,
Research
Institutes,
Development
Partners, farmers
Government with
donor support
Grants
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 132
2. Promote the
sustainable
management of
rangelands to
reduce GHG
emissions from soil
and land
degradation
2.1 Reduced GHG
emissions through
, through
sustainable land
management of
rangelands and
pastures

72,522,808

9,488,571

22,291,111

40,743,125
2.1.1 integrated
rangeland
management plans
prepared and
implemented
MAAIF NARO,
Universities,
Research
Institutes,
Development
Partners, farmers
1. National and local
Government
2. Donor Support –
MLOS, BLs active in
agriculture (GEF
SCCF, LDCF, WB,
UNDP, FAO, MDGAF;
SIDA, GIZ, DFID,
SDC etc.)
3. Agric. NGOs, CSOs
4. International and
regional Institutions,
Research Orgs
working on agriculture
(e.g. IFPRI, CGIAR)
5. Private Sector,
businesses
1. Sector Budget (agriculture /
extension services), district
budgets
2 grants, concessional loans,
co-financing
3. TA, payment in kind
4. Payment in kind, grants, TA
5. TA, payment in kind
2.2.2
Implementation of
integrated
rangeland and
pasture
management plans
enforced.
MAAIF NARO,
Universities,
Research
Institutes,
Development
Partners, farmers
1. National and local
Government
2. Donor Support –
MLOS, BLs active in
agriculture (GEF
SCCF, LDCF, WB,
UNDP, FAO, MDGAF;
SIDA, GIZ, DFID,
SDC etc.)
1. Sector Budget (agriculture /
extension services), district
budgets
2 grants, concessional loans,
co-financing
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 133
3. Agric. NGOs, CSOs
3. TA, payment in kind
3. Promote the
sustainable
utilisation of
agricultural
products
3.1 Minimal GHG
emissions from
utilisation of
agricultural
products for
livestock feed

14,075,090

4,428,000

5,572,778

4,074,313
3.1.1 Training and
information
dissemination on
appropriate
combinations of
agricultural
products for
livestock feed
MAAIF NARO,
Universities,
Research
Institutes,
Development
Partners,farmers
Private sector,
Local
Communities
1. National and local
Government
2. Donor Support –
MLOS, BLs active in
agriculture (GEF
SCCF, LDCF, WB,
UNDP, FAO, MDGAF;
SIDA, GIZ, DFID,
SDC etc.)
3. Agric. NGOs, CSOs
4. International and
regional Institutions,
Research Orgs
working on agriculture
(e.g. IFPRI, CGIAR)
5. Private Sector,
businesses
1. Sector Budget (agriculture /
extension services), district
budgets
2 grants, concessional loans,
co-financing
3. TA, payment in kind
4. Payment in kind, grants, TA
5. TA, payment in kind
3.1.2 Recycling of
agricultural wastes
supported
including
composting and
waste to energy
MAAIF MEMD, NARO,
Universities,
Research
Institutes,
Development
Partners, Private
sector,
Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 134
activities Communities
Sub-Total
141,912,000

26,568,000

50,155,000

65,189,000
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 135
Sector 4: Energy Generation
Policy priority: To support and accelerate the implementation of the Renewable Energy Policy (REP), in particular with respect to the promotion and development of new clean energy technologies in order to reduce GHG
emission
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change
(US$)
Timeframe Lead
Impleme
ntation
Agency
Responsible
Parties
Possible Climate Finance
Instruments / Sources of
Finance
Possible Financial Tool / Products
Short
term (1-5
yrs)
Medium
Term (6-10
yrs)
Long- term
(10-15 yrs)
1.Promote
investment in clean
energy generation
under public–
private partnerships
1.1 Reduction
in GHG
emissions from
energy
generation

4,125,350

-

3,060,233

1,065,118
1.1.1 Increase in
installed capacity,
generation and
access of clean
energy
MEMD Ministry of
Finance
Private sector
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(GEEREF, SREP, CDM, CPF,
SCF, CIFs, GEF, WB; FORMIN,
NORAD, GIZ/KfW, DFID, etc.)
3. Private Sector
1. National budget, tax
(dis)incentives, feed-in tariffs, loan
guarantees
2. Budget support, concessional
loans, co-financing, grants, TA
3. soft loans, TA, payment in kind,
direct investment
1.1.2. Support the
development and
implementation of
NAMAs in the
energy sector
MEMD MWE,
MoFPED,
NPA,
Private sector
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(GEEREF, SREP, CDM, CPF,
SCF, CIFs, GEF TF, GEF SCCF,
WB; FORMIN, NORAD, GIZ/KfW,
DFID, etc.)
3. Private Sector
4. NGOs, CSOs,
5. Research institutions
1. National budget, tax
(dis)incentives, feed-in tariffs, loan
guarantees
2. Budget support, concessional
loans, co-financing, grants, TA
3. Soft loans, TA, payment in kind,
direct investment
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, grants
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 136
2.Promote,
encourage and
incentivise
cogeneration,
which is the
production by
industries of heat or
steam and
electricity from
renewable biomass
2.1 Reduction
in GHG
emissions
through use of
cogeneration
2.1.1 Increase in
energy generated
by sugar factories
and other relevant
processing plants

1,863,164

-

1,224,093

639,071
Private
Sector
MEMD
UERA
Private Sector
( mainly sugar
factories with
others to
follow)
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(GEEREF, SREP, CDM, CPF,
SCF, CIFs, GEF, WB; FORMIN,
NORAD, GIZ/KfW, DFID, etc.)
3. Private Sector
1. National budget, tax
(dis)incentives, feed-in tariffs, loan
guarantees
2. Budget support, concessional
loans, co-financing, grants, TA
3. soft loans, TA, payment in kind,
direct investment
3.Provide tax
incentives and
other benefits to
private-sector
companies who
invest in cleaner
energy generation
3.1 increased
private sector
involvement
and investment
in clean energy
generation
3.1.1 Increased
amount of clean
energy generated
through support of
the private sector

1,038,094

-

612,047

426,047
Ministry
of
Finance
(MoF)
MEMD
Private Sector
Uganda
Investment
Authority
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(GEEREF, SREP, CDM, CPF,
SCF, CIFs, GEF, WB; FORMIN,
NORAD, GIZ/KfW, DFID, etc.)
3. Private Sector
1. National budget, tax
(dis)incentives, feed-in tariffs, loan
guarantees
2. Budget support, concessional
loans, co-financing, grants, TA
3. soft loans, TA, payment in kind,
direct investment
4.Promote the use
of alternative
renewable energy
sources such as
solar, biomass,
wind and biofuels,
as well as their
associated
technologies
4.1
Diversification
of energy
generation
sources and
appropriate
technologies
4.1.1 Increased
proportion of clean
energy in the
national grid

8,665,541

8,665,541

-

-
MEMD Private Sector;
Universities
and other
tertiary
institutions;
NGOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(GEEREF, SREP, CDM, CPF,
SCF, CIFs, GEF, WB; FORMIN,
NORAD, GIZ/KfW, DFID, etc.)
3. Private Sector
1. National budget, tax
(dis)incentives, feed-in tariffs, loan
guarantees
2. Budget support, concessional
loans, co-financing, grants, TA
3. soft loans, TA, payment in kind,
direct investment
4.2 Increased
national energy
security
4.2.1 Reduced
dependence on
limited (nonrenewable)
energy
resources
MEMD MEMD
Universities
and other
tertiary
institutions
NOGs
Same as 4.1.1. Same as 4.1.1.
5. Develop
hydroelectric and
geothermal power
systems and
integrate them into
the East African
Power Pool in the
medium term
5.1
Developed
domestic
hydroelectric
and geothermal
power
resources
5.1.1 Improved
supply of
hydroelectric and
geothermal power
generation at local
level
3,327,304 - 1,836,140 1,491,165 MEMD Uganda
Electricity
Transmission
Company
Uganda
Electricity
Regulatory
Authority,MoF
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(GEEREF, SREP, CDM, CPF,
SCF, CIFs, GEF TF, GEF SCCF,
WB; FORMIN, NORAD, GIZ/KfW,
DFID, etc.)
3. Private Sector
4. NGOs, CSOs
1. National budget, tax
(dis)incentives, feed-in tariffs, loan
guarantees; district budgets
2. Budget support, concessional
loans, co-financing, grants, TA
3. Soft loans, TA, payment in kind,
direct investment
4. TA, payment in kind
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 137
6.Promote the use
of combined-cycle
gas turbines in
cases where there
is a shortfall in
renewable energy
power generation
systems
6.1 Improved
availability of
cleaner
sources of
fossil fuel
energy where
renewables are
unavailable
6.1.1. Combined
cycle gas turbines
available in place of
HFO and diesel
systems

3,327,304

-

1,836,140

1,491,165
MEMD MoF
Private Sector
( independent
power
producers)
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(GEEREF, SREP, CDM, CPF,
SCF, CIFs, GEF, WB; FORMIN,
NORAD, GIZ/KfW, DFID, etc.)
3. Private Sector
1. National budget, tax
(dis)incentives, feed-in tariffs, loan
guarantees
2. Budget support, concessional
loans, co-financing, grants, TA
3. soft loans, TA, payment in kind,
direct investment
7. Regulate the oil
and gas sector and
use of fossil fuels to
reduce GHG
emissions
7.1 Regulated
oil and gas
sector and use
of fossil fuels to
mitigate GHG
emissions

3,327,304

-

1,836,140

1,491,165
7.1.1 Climate
change issues
integrated in the oil
and gas exploration
and extraction to
mitigate GHG
emissions
MEMD MoTIC, MWE,
MoFPED
NEMA, UNBS,
Development
Partners,
CSOs, Private
Sector
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs, BLs
(GEEREF, SREP, CDM, CPF,
SCF, CIFs, GEF TF, GEF SCCF,
WB; FORMIN, NORAD, GIZ/KfW,
DFID, etc.)
3. Private Sector
4. NGOs, CSOs active in
extraction industries
5. Research institutions
1. National budget, tax and fine
(dis)incentives, feed-in tariffs
2. Budget support, concessional
loans, co-financing, grants, TA
3. Soft loans, TA, payment in kind,
direct investment, co-financing
4. TA, payment in kind
5. TA, payment in kind, grants
7.1.2 GHG
emissions from
fossil fuel
consumption
reduced by financial
and regulatory
disincentives
MEMD MoTIC, MWE,
MoFPED,
NEMA, UNBS,
Development
Partners,
CSOs, Private
Sector
1. Government with the support of
donors
1. National budget, TA support from
donors
Sub-Total
25,674,062

8,665,541

10,404,791

6,603,729
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 138
Sector 5: Energy Utilisation
Policy priority:
 To promote conservation and efficient utilisation of energy to reduce GHG emissions, especially at consumer levels (industries, households, commercial and institutional buildings)
 To encourage the use of alternative fuels instead of heavily relying on biomass
Strategic interventions Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change
(US$)
Timeframe Lead
Implem
entatio
n
Agency
Responsible
Parties
Possible Climate
Finance Instruments /
Sources of Finance
Possible Financial Tool /
Products
Short term
(1-5 yrs)
Medium
Term (6-10
yrs)
Long- term
(10+ yrs)
1.Promote the
development of energy
conservation and efficiency
projects in all sectors; for
example, to promote the
use of stabilised bricks and
efficient brick kilns in the
building sector
1.1 Reduced
emissions and
improved forest
cover through
decreased
consumption of
woodfuel

29,282,812

-

12,240,930

17,041,882
1.1.1 Low cost
buildings provided
for low income and
vulnerable groups;
constructed and
lived in with minimal
wood consumption
MEMD Universities and
other tertiary
institutions
Private Sector,
NGOs
Ministry of
Housing, NEMA
Ministry of local
government
1. Government
2. Donor Support –
MLOs, BLs (GEEREF,
CDM, CIFs , ICF, GEF,
ICI, WB, AfDB; AFD,
NORAD, JICA, etc)
3. Private Sector
1. Sector budget
2. Grants, TA, co-financing
3. co-financing, soft loans,
micro-loans for SMEs, TA
1.1.2 Usage of
woodfuel in brick
burning reduced
through promotion
of stabilised bricks
and efficient brick
kilns.
MEMD Universities and
other tertiary
institutions
Private sector
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 139
1.1.3 Reduction in
woodfuel usage by
institutions and
industries
MEMD Universities and
other tertiary
institutions
Private sector
NGOs
Same as 1.1.1. with
additional support from
institutions, industries
Same as 1.1.1. TA, in-kind
payments from institutions,
industries
2. Enforce building codes
with the aim of reducing
energy consumption and
encouraging designs that
maximise the use of natural
daylight in buildings
2.1 Reduced GHG
emission from
building energy
consumption
2.1.1 Increased
proportion of energy
efficient buildings
meeting code and
maximising efficient
design

71,833,154

43,327,702

20,197,534

8,307,918
MoLHU
D
National Bureau
of standards
Professional
Engineering
Institutions
1. Government
2. Donor Support –
MLOs, BLs (GEEREF,
CDM, CIFs, ICF, GEF,
ICI, WB, AfDB; AFD,
NORAD, JICA, etc)
3. Private Sector
4. Research/ Institutions
1. Sector budget
2. Grants, TA, co-financing
3. co-financing, soft loans,
TA
4. TA, payment in kind
3. Promote the use of
energy-efficient
technologies such as
compact florescent lamps
and other commercially
available high-efficiency
lamps
3.1 Reduction in
energy use and
GHG emissions in
building sector
from use of
energy efficient
technologies

1,863,164

-

1,224,093

639,071
3.1.1 Increased
proportion of
buildings integrating
energy efficient
technologies
MEMD MoFPED,
Private sector
1. Government
2. Donor Support –
MLOs, BLs (GEEREF,
CDM, CIFs, ICF, GEF,
ICI, WB, AfDB; AFD,
NORAD, JICA, etc)
3. Private Sector
4. Research/ Institutions
1. Sector budget
2. Grants, TA, co-financing
3. co-financing, soft loans,
TA
4. TA, payment in kind
3.1.2 Energy
efficient
technologies
incentivised
MEMD Private sector 1. Government
2. Donor Support –
MLOs, BLs (GEEREF,
CDM, CTF, ICF, GEF,
ICI, WB, AfDB; AFD,
NORAD, JICA, etc)
3. Private Sector
4. Research/ Institutions,
1. Sector budget, tax
(dis)incentives
2. Grants, TA, co-financing
3. co-financing, soft loans,
TA
4. TA, payment in kind
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
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14 October 2013 140
NGOs, CSOs
3.1.3 Energy saved
for other productive
uses
MEMD Energy endusers
NGOs
Same as 3.1.2 Same as 3.1.2
4.Promote efficient
firewood/charcoal stoves
and solar and LPG
cookers, and address the
high upfront costs of
acquiring these
technologies through
household subsidies or tax
waivers
4.1 Forests
preserved for
sequestering
carbon and
emissions
reductions
through
reduced/efficient
use of fuel wood
4.1.1 Reduced
utilisation of
biomass energy
through efficient
cooking stoves;
reduced
deforestation and
forest degradation

5,302,356

3,466,216

1,836,140

-
MEMD MoFPED,
Development
Partners, Local
Governments,
CSOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support –
MLOs, BLs (GEEREF,
CDM, CIFs , ICF, GEF,
ICI, WB, AfDB; AFD,
NORAD, JICA, etc)
3. Private Sector
4. NGOs, CSOs,
Institutions
1. Sector budget
2. Grants, TA, co-financing
3. co-financing, soft loans,
micro-loans for SMEs, TA
4. TA, payment in kind,
grants
4.2 GHG
emissions
reductions from
decreased
charcoal use
4.2.1 Increased
number of
households using
LPG cookers,
thereby reducing
pressure on use of
charcoal
MEMD MoFPED,
Development
Partners, Local
Governments,
CSOs
Same as 4.1.1. Same as 4.1.1.
5. Reduce
deforestation by
providing alternative
clean energy sources
and efficient
appliances for
energy use,
management and
conservation
5.1 Reduced
deforestation and
increase in carbon
sequestration
through use of
alternative energy
sources and
products
5.1.1 Improved
energy
management and
conservation in
institutions and
industries
Synergy with
forestry
MEMD Universities and
other tertiary
institutions
Private sector
NGO’s
UNFA
Same as 4.1.1. with
additional support from
institutions, industries
Same as 1.1.1. with
additional support from
institutions, industries
Sub-Total
108,281,485

46,793,918

35,498,697

25,988,871
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 141
Sector 6: Transport Sector
Policy priority:
 To promote the development, approval and effective implementation of a long-term national transport policy and plan that will take GHG mitigation concerns into account
 To effect a gradual shift to the use of less carbon-intensive fuels (including compressed natural gas, ethanol and LPG) in vehicles instead of relying heavily on gasoline and diesel fuels
 To promote modes of transport that take GHG emission reduction into account
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change
(US$)
Timeframe Lead
Implementati
on Agency
Responsible
Parties
Possible Climate
Finance Instruments /
Sources of Finance
Possible Financial Tool /
Products
Short term
(1-5 yrs)
Medium
Term (6-10
yrs)
Long- term
(10-15 yrs)
1.Improve road
infrastructure, and
traffic management in
urban centres to
reduce traffic
congestion and GHG
emissions
1.1 Reduced traffic
congestion and
GHG emissions in
transport in urban
areas resulting from
improved road
infrastructure and
traffic management

137,596,957

-

40,164,800

97,432,157
1.1.1 Improved
transport
infrastructure
Ministry of
Works (MoW)
Kampala city
council; private
sector
Other local
authorities
1. Government
2. Donors – MLOs, BLs
(WB, GEF SCCF, ICF,
etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs,
research institutions
4. Private sector
1. Sector Budget
2. TA, Grants, soft loans, cofinancing
3. TA, payment in kind,
grants
4. TA, payment in kind
(training), direct investment,
concessional loans
1.1.2 Improved
traffic flow and
management in
urban areas.
MoWT KCCA, MoLG,
Local
Governments
Universities
Private sector,
CSOs
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
Final Draft Costed Implementation Strategy s
__________________________________________________________________________________
14 October 2013 142
2. Promote and
encourage reduction
of reduce greenhouse
emissions from the
transport sector
2.1 Clean air and
reduction in GHG
emissions from the
transport sector

264,982,325

79,317,188

100,412,000

85,253,137
2.1.1. Develop
plans and
strategies to
promote efficient
public transport
sector
MOWT MoFPED,
Private sector
Local
government
1. Government
2. Donors – MLOs, BLs
(WB, GEF SCCF, ICF,
etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs,
research institutions
4. Private sector
1. Sector Budget
2. TA, Grants, soft loans, cofinancing
3. TA, payment in kind,
grants
4. TA, payment in kind
(training), direct investment,
concessional loans
2.1.2 NAMAs
developed in the
transport sector
MoWT MWE,
Development
Partners, CSOs,
Private Sector
Same as 2.1.1. Same as 2.1.1.
2.1.3 Low carbon
transport modes
developed
including bus
rapid transport,
light rail and trams
and marine
transport systems
MoWT MoLHUD,
MoLG, Local
Governments,
Private sector
Same as 2.1.1. Same as 2.1.1.
2.1.4 Existing
railway system
improved to
reduce road traffic
and GHG
emissions
MoWT, MoFPED, NPA,
MoLHUD, MolG,
KCCA, Local
governments
Same as 2.1.1. Same as 2.1.1.
2.1.5 Nonmotorized
modes
of transport
developed
MoWT KCCA, MoLG,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners,
Private Sector
Same as 2.1.1. Same as 2.1.1.
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3. Promote privatesector
investment in
the biofuel industry,
covering the whole
biofuel chain from
cultivation to fuel
processing
3.1 Developed
biofuel industry in
Uganda

7,670,186

-

4,016,480

3,653,706
3.1.1
Biofuel plants
constructed
MEMD MoFPED
Private sector
Financial
institutions
1. Government
2. Donors – MLOs, BLs
(WB, GEF SCCF, ICF,
etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs,
research institutions
4. Private sector
1. Sector Budget, subsidies,
tax incentives
2. TA, Grants, soft loans, cofinancing
3. TA, payment in kind,
grants
4. TA, payment in kind
(training), direct investment,
concessional loans
3.1.2 Human
resource
development in
biofuel
MoES Universities and
other tertiary
institutions
MEMD
Private sector
Financial
institutions
Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1.
3.1.3 Use of
marginal land for
fuel/ energy
production
MEMD/ Mo
A&AH
Farmers
Associations
Private Sector
Research
institutions
Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1.
3.1.4 Established
biofuel distribution
system
MEMD MoF
Financial
Institution
Private sector
Same as 3.1.1. largely
stemming from publicprivate
sector interface
Same as 3.1.1. largely
stemming from public-private
sector interface
4.Establish national
standards for
emissions and
implement strict
vehicular emissions
standards in tandem
with measures to
gradually phase out
old, inefficient motor
vehicles, while
4.1 Functional
national standards
for vehicular
emissions; reduced
GHG emissions
from old vehicles

11,312,533

5,287,813

6,024,720

-
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encouraging the
importation of efficient
ones
4.1.1 Vehicle
emissions
standards
developed and
enforced
MoWT MWE, NEMA,
Private Sector
1. Government
2. Donors – MLOs, BLs
(WB, GEF SCCF, ICF,
etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs,
research institutions
4. Private sector
1. Sector Budget, subsidies,
tax incentives
2. TA, Grants, soft loans, cofinancing
3. TA, payment in kind,
grants
4. TA, payment in kind
(training), direct investment,
concessional loans
4.1.2 Old and
inefficient vehicles
gradually phased
out as new
vehicles increase
Medium
term to longterm
MoFPED MoWT, NEMA,
Private sector
Same as 4.1.1. Same as 4.1.1.
Sub-Total
421,562,000

84,605,000

150,618,000 186,339,000
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Sector 7: Industrial Sector
Policy priority:
 To promote cleaner production processes in industries to contain the increase in GHG emissions
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change
(US$)
Timeframe Lead
Impleme
ntation
Agency
Responsible Parties Possible Sources of
Finance
Possible Policy Instruments for
Promoting Climate Change
Investment Short term
(1-5 yrs)
Medium
Term (6-10
yrs)
Long- term
(10-15 yrs)
1.Promote new
technologies in
cement
processing
industries
1.1
Improved
cement
production
process

6,123,517

1,420,938

2,477,857

2,224,722
1.1.1 Cleaner
production
processes
introduced for
cement that will
reduce wastes.
MoTIC MoFPED, NEMA,
Uganda investment
Authority
Private sector
1. Government
2. Donors – MLOs, BLs (WB,
GEF SCCF, ICF, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs, research
institutions
4. Private sector
1. Sector Budget, subsidies, tax
incentives
2. TA, Grants, soft loans, cofinancing
3. TA, payment in kind, grants
4. TA, payment in kind (training),
direct investment, concessional
loans
1.1.2 improved
cement
manufacturing
techniques that
reduce GHG
emissions and
energy
consumption
developed
MoTIC Uganda Cleaner
Production Centre
(UCPC)
NEMA
Private Sector, UNBS
Same as 1.1.1.
Same as 1.1.1.
2. Improve the
efficiency and
use of alternative
fuels for lime
kilns
2.1 Reduced
deforestation
around lime
production
areas
2.1.1 Use of more
efficient lime kilns
promoted

426,281

426,281

-

-
MEMD Private Sector
Universities and other
tertiary institutions
1. Government
2. Donor Support – MLOs,
BLs (WB SCF, GEF, CPF,
CIFs, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs, research
institutions
1. Sector budget, district budgets
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, grants
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2.2.
Alternative
fuels used
for lime kiln
reduce
pressure on
fuel wood
2.2.1 Use of
alternative energy
sources for lime
kilns promoted to
replace fuel wood
dependency
MEMD Private sector
NEMA
Same as 2.2.1. Same as 2.2.1.
3. Promote
cleaner
production in the
industrial sector
(waste reduction)
3.1 Reduced
GHG
emissions in
the industrial
sector

2,362,378

284,188

743,357

1,334,833
3.1.1 Increased
use of lower
emissions
alternatives in
paint industry
(chemicals)
MWE MoTIC, Private sector
UCPC
NEMA
1. Government
2. Donors – MLOs, BLs (WB,
GEF SCCF, ICF, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs, research
institutions
4. Private sector
1. Sector Budget, subsidies, tax
incentives
2. TA, Grants, soft loans, cofinancing
3. TA, payment in kind, grants
4. TA, payment in kind (training),
direct investment, concessional
loans
3.1.2 Increased
use of lower
emissions
alternatives in dry
cleaning
(chemicals)
MWE MoTIC, Private sector
UCPC
NEMA
Ministry of Industry and
Tourism
Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1.
3.1.3 Increased
use of lower
emissions
alternatives in
foam industry
(chemicals)
MWE MoTIC, UCPC
NEMA, Private sector
Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1.
3.1.4
Improvements in
energy efficiency
in industry
supported
MEMD MoTIC, UCPC
NEMA, Private sector
Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1.
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4.Review and
enforce emission
regulations in the
industrial sector
4.1 Industrial
sector
complies to
updated
emissions
standards

834,824

142,094

247,786

444,944
4.1.1 Emissions
regulations in the
industrial sector
reviewed and
strengthened and
MRVs put in
place to monitor
emissions
MoTIC, MWE, MEMD, Private
sector
UCPC
1. Government
2. Donors – MLOs, BLs (WB,
GEF SCCF, ICF, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs, research
institutions
4. Private sector
1. Sector Budget, subsidies, tax
incentives
2. TA, Grants, soft loans, cofinancing
3. TA, payment in kind, grants
4. TA, payment in kind (training)
4.1.2 Reviewed
emissions
regulations in the
industrial sector
implemented to
reduces GHG
emissions in the
industrial sector
MoTIC, MWE, MEMD, UCPC,
Private sector
Same as 4.1.1. Same as 4.1.1.
Sub-Total
9,747,000

2,273,500

3,469,000

4,004,500
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Sector 8: Waste Management
Policy priority:
 To promote sustainable use of solid and liquid wastes for energy generation and other uses, such as fertilisers
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change
(US$)
Timeframe Lead
Implementatio
n Agency
Responsible
Parties
Possible Sources of
Finance
Possible Policy Instruments
for Promoting Climate
Change Investment Short term
(1-5 yrs)
Medium Term
(6-10 yrs)
Long- term
(10+ yrs)
1. Promote and
encourage wasteto-energy

programmes to
reduce GHG
emissions and
increasing energy
generation and
access.
1.1 Reduction in
GHG emission
and other
pollutants from
inappropriate
waste
management
practices;
increased energy
generation and
access.

863,250

318,000

97,050

448,200
1.1.1 CDM
projects and
NAMAs
developed in the
waste
management
sector
MWE MEMD, NEMA,
NWSC, MoFPED,
KCCA, Local
Governments
Uganda Investment
Authority
Development
Partners, Private
Sector
1. Government
2. Donor Support –
MLOs, BLs (WB, GEF,
CPF, CIFs, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs,
research institutions
4. Private Sector
1. Sector budget
2. Grants, TA, concessional
loans
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. Direct investment, carbon
finance, TA, soft loans
1.1.2 Energy
generation from
waste including
landfill gas,
waste water,
biogas etc
promoted
MEMD MWE, NEMA,
NWSC, MoFPED,
KCCA, Local
Governments
Uganda Investment
Authority
Development
Partners, Private
Sector
Same as 1.1.1.
including financial
incentives from
government
Same as 1.1.1. including
financial incentives from
government
1.1.3 Cost
effective and
efficient waste to
energy
technology
MEMD MWE, NEMA,
NWSC, MoFPED,
KCCA, Local
Governments
Uganda Investment
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
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developed Authority
Development
Partners, Private
Sector
2.Promote proper
disposal and
sustainable use of
wastes, including
sorting and
composting waste
2.1
Environmentally
friendly solid and
liquid waste
management
facilities

900,300

318,000

582,300

-
2.1.1 Increased
compost
production
(fertiliser) from
wastes
KCCA/Local
Governments
MWE, MoLG,
NEMA
Development
Partners, CSOs,
Private Sector
1. Government
2. Donor Support –
MLOs, BLs (WB, GEF,
CPF, CIFs, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs,
research institutions
4. Private Sector
1. Sector budget, tax
incentives
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. Direct investment, carbon
finance, TA, soft loans
2.2.2 Increased
waste reuse,
recovery and
recycling
KCCA/Local
Governments
MWE, MoLG, NEMA
Development
Partners, CSOs,
Private Sector
Same as 2.2.1. Same as 2.2.1.
3.Promote the
gasification and
incineration of
large quantities of
waste to generate
thermal energy or
electricity
3.1 Introduction
and/or expansion
of new
technologies
for electricity and
thermal energy
generation from
wastes

642,300

-

194,100

448,200
3.1.1 Energy
generation by
gasification
MEMD Private sector
Universities and
other tertiary
institutions
NGOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support –
MLOs, BLs (WB, GEF,
CPF, CIFs, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs,
research institutions
4. Private Sector
1. Sector budget, tax
incentives, loan guarantees,
feed in tariffs
2. Grants, TA, concessional
loans
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. Direct investment, carbon
finance, TA, soft loans
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3.1.2 Energy
generation by
anaerobic
systems (biogas)
MEMD Private sector
Universities and
other tertiary
institutions
NGOs
Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1.
3.1.3 Energy
generation by
incineration
MEMD Private sector
Universities and
other tertiary
institutions
NGOs
Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1.
4.Promote the use
of human waste
for production of
biogas, which can
be used for
cooking and
lighting in
institutions such
as schools and
hospitals, while
effluent can be
used as fertiliser
4.1 Reduction in
methane
emissions from
human wastes
4.1.1 Accessible
and affordable
alternative
energy
resources
available to
households and
institutions

321,150

-

97,050

224,100
MEMD Private sector
Household
Institutions
Universities and
other tertiary
institutions
NGOs
1. Government
2. Donor Support –
MLOs, BLs (WB, GEF,
CPF, CIFs, etc)
3. NGOs, CSOs,
research institutions
4. Private Sector
1. Sector budget, tax
incentives, loan guarantees,
feed in tariffs
2. Grants, TA, concessional
loans
3. TA, grants, payment in kind
4. Direct investment, carbon
finance, TA, soft loans
Sub-Total
2,727,000

636,000

970,500

1,120,500
TOTAL
MITIGATION
COSTS

804,430,066

187,245,799

286,174,168

331,010,099
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5.4 Monitoring, Detection, Attribution and Prediction Strategy Matrix
Monitoring, Detection, Attribution and Prediction
 Policy priority: To continue the on-going efforts to strengthen the capacity of the Department of Meteorology in its functions in climate change monitoring and detection in Uganda
Strategic
interventions
Expected
outcomes
Output Total
Additional
cost due to
climate
change
(USD)
Timeframe Lead
Implementati
on Agency
Responsible
Parties
Possible Sources of
Finance
Possible Policy Instruments
for Promoting Climate
Change Investment Short term
(1-5 yrs)
Medium
Term (5-10
yrs)
Long- term
(10+ yrs)
1. Support capacity
development for
accurate weather
data collection,
analysis and climate
monitoring
1.1 Increased
capacity for accurate
weather data
collection and
analysis

8,090,157

1,792,128

1,611,225

4,686,803
1.1.1 Modern
meteorological
infrastructure increased
and adequately
maintained (weather
observing stations,
communication and
processing systems, and
training and
dissemination facilities)
MWE
(National
Meteorology
Authority)
MWE, MAAIF,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, Civil
Society
1. Government
2. MLOs and BLs
focused on climate
research and data/
information-sharing
(e.g. GEF LDCF,
SCCF, AF, WB Africa,
IDRC/CIDA, ICI, GIZ,
SIDA)
3. Institutions, Think
tanks (e.g. ACPC,
CIFOR)
4. NGOs, CSOs
5. Private Sector,
financial institutions,
businesses
1. National budget (research,
agriculture, weather/
meteorological), district
budgets (meteorological
systems)
2. Grants, TA, co-financing
3. Research Grants; payment
in kind (technical training)
4. Payment in kind, TA
5. Co-financing; loans,
payment in kind (training), TA
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1.1.2 Digitization of data
and historical climate
data rescue promoted
MWE
(National
Meteorology
Authority)
MWE, MAAIF,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, Civil
Society
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
2. Support timely
sharing and
dissemination of
relevant data and
information with
potential users at
both the national and
district levels
2.1 Timely sharing
and dissemination of
relevant weather
and climate data and
information with
potential users at
national and district
levels
2.1.1 Systems for
weather and climate data
information sharing
functional and data
disseminated to potential
users in all sectors at
national and district
levels

535,741

246,374

152,724

136,643
MWE
(National
Meteorology
Authority)
MWE, MAAIF,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, Civil
Society
Same as 1.1.1. Same as 1.1.1.
3. Provide support
for the development
of reliable climate
modeling and
prediction and
climate early-warning
systems.
3.1 Reliable climate
early warning
systems is in place

680,425

246,374

229,086

204,964
3.1.1 Downscaling of
Global and Regional
Climate model outputs to
national and sub-national
levels supported to
address climate
variability and change in
the country
MWE
(National
Meteorology
Authority)
MWE, MAAIF,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, Civil
Society
1. Government
2. Development
partners – MLOs, BLs
(ECA/AfDB, GEF
SCCF, WB; GIZ)
3. Institutions, think
tanks, academia,
NGOs
1. Sector budget
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, payment in kind, grants
3.1.2 Early warning
systems strengthened for
monitoring, detection,
attribution and prediction
of extreme weather and
climate events;
Same as 3.1.1. Same as 3.1.1.
4. Support Research
and Development
climate monitoring,
detection, attribution
and prediction
4.1 Enhanced
capacity for climate
research and
development

10,313,856

3,079,681

3,818,108

3,416,067
4.1.1. Priority research
and Development
interventions are
Different
ministries and
universities
North and South
Research
partners
1. Government
2. Development
1. Sector budget
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selected, adequately
funded, and implemented
partners – MLOs, BLs
(ECA/AfDB, GEF
SCCF, WB; GIZ)
3. Institutions, think
tanks, academia,
NGOs
2. Grants, TA
3. TA, payment in kind, grants
4.1.2. Modalities of
disseminating and
sharing climate research
findings developed, with
an emphasis on research
into use to inform policy
and practice
MWE Other ministries ,
Local
Governments,
Development
Partners, Civil
Society
Same as 4.1.1. Same as 4.1.1.
TOTAL
19,620,179

5,364,558

5,811,144

8,444,477
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6. Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Framework
Effective implementation of the National Climate Change Policy highly dependent on the internal
“feedback” generated through monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) processes. Without the
M&E framework, it will be impossible for the GoU to assess the effectiveness of investment in
mitigation and adaptation, or to determine whether the funds are being spent wisely.
6.1 Rationale for the M&E Framework
The M&E framework is underpinned by the need to promote efficiency and effectiveness in service
delivery to achieve results as well as transparency and accountability in the use of available
resources. In addition, the continuance of international funding for climate change activities
depends on effective M&E, and as far as climate is concerned developing the MRV system is crucial.
Bilateral aid agencies, multilateral development banks and other providers of finance need the
results of MRV systems to validate the effectiveness of funds they provide. Therefore, securing
further financial support for the implementation of the NCCP will be dependent on the successful
establishment of the M&E framework.
To assist in the process of effective and efficient implementation of the national climate change
policy and its strategy, as well as to promote the lessons learning through this process, it is
paramount to develop a clear set of building blocks to organise the monitoring and evaluation of the
policy implementation process. This is what the present M&E framework for the policy is meant to
provide.
The main building blocks of the M&E process, as well as guidance with respect to the main roles and
responsibilities of the key stakeholders in this M&E process are described below.
6.2 Main Buildings Blocks of the M&E Framework
The M&E framework for the policy is composed of the following two key components:
 The monitoring function. Monitoring is meant to be a continuous process of performance
assessment over the policy implementation period and will provide the main stakeholders in the
policy implementation process with clear and regular reporting on the extent of progress in the
implementation of the policy and its strategy.
In this case, the reporting will be provided on an annual basis. Details on roles and
responsibilities in this annual reporting/monitoring function have already been elaborated upon
in the policy document, but are also reiterated in section 6.3 below. Monitoring typically does
not cover reporting against expected and unexpected policy impacts, which tend to relate to
longer time frames and typically present attribution challenges. Monitoring will focus on issues
of effectiveness and efficiency in strategy implementation against the approved outcomes and
outputs under the detailed action programme for the strategy.
 The evaluation function. Evaluation is the systematic and independent assessment of the policy
implementation process and its results. The aim is to determine the relevance and fulfilment of
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objectives, as well as the effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability of the policy
implementation and its results. It aims to provide information that is credible and useful,
enabling the incorporation of lessons learned into future revision of the policy or its
implementation strategy, as the context surrounding the policy evolves.
In the case of the climate change policy, an independent evaluation is planned after the first five
years of implementation, in 2017. The recommendations resulting from this evaluation will feed
into the revision process for the policy. As already mentioned in the policy document, this
revision is to be carried out based on a thorough public consultation process and review of the
results at that point in time.
Annex A provides a summary monitoring and evaluation matrix, highlighting the main issues to
be covered by monitoring on a regular basis on one hand, and independent evaluation on the
other.
6.3 Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) System
A key component of the proposed M&E is an overarching MRV system that can deliver both MRV of
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation activities and monitoring and reporting of the
adaptation activities. The MRV system will assist by:
 Providing guidance on the implementation of climate change response actions (both adaptation
and mitigation actions), whether in the form of policies, projects, programmes or business
ventures.
 Helping fulfill Uganda’s international reporting obligations: for example, by assisting in
developing its GHG inventory and tracking mitigation and adaptation actions ready to report to
the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) through National
Communications (NCs). The MRV system will formalize and institutionalize the process for
producing the GHG inventory and NCs;
 Demonstrating the country’s climate finance readiness and providing a strong platform for
attracting international climate finance flows from multilateral and bilateral development
partners.
The proposed MRV system will carry out a process that contains three main stages, as follows:
 Measurement, monitoring (and evaluation): data and information will be gathered and fed
into the system; the data and information will be quality checked and evaluated.
 Verification: the analysis will produce results that will be cross-checked and verified to
ensure that they are realistic estimates of the outcomes being monitored.
 Reporting: once the results have been verified, they will then be reported in whatever
format is required.
The underlying principles of the MRV system design are to build on existing institutions and skills
wherever possible and to take into account the planned climate change governance structures.
Existing M&E systems within the Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) and M&E related
governance structures have important roles to play in the MRV system.
However, arrangements required by the MRV system and the additional functions of the various
participants in the Performance Measurement Framework (PMF) require a significant capacity
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14 October 2013 156
building effort. A set of activities that expand the scale, reach, efficiency and effectiveness of
programmes and institutions will be required.
It could take up to three to five years before the MRV system is fully operational. Therefore, the core
elements of an M&E will be used as a fully fledged MRV system is being developed or fast tracked.
However, to meet international reporting obligations to the UNFCCC through National
Communications, GHG inventories will need to be produced on a regular basis. Therefore there is
need for a clear methodology and team in place to continually improve the transparency, accuracy,
completeness, comparability, consistency of the GHG inventory each time it is produced.
6.3 Tools, Roles and Responsibilities in the Implementation of the M&E
Framework
Each lead ministry, department and agency for which accountabilities have been identified under
the costed implementation strategy will have a role to play in monitoring and reporting. As
mentioned earlier in this document, it is expected that as each partner in the policy implementation
process tailors the indicative strategy guidance to its own work planning, specific performance
measurement frameworks (PMFs) to organise the monitoring and reporting function for each
partner will also have to be developed as part of the planning process, with guidance from the NCCC,
to ensure a common format that can easily be consolidated. The NCCC will itself be tasked with
developing the comprehensive overarching PMF.
Such individual PMFs, as well as the overarching PMF, will present, for each category of results
(outcomes and outputs in particular), performance indicators and targets, as well as methods and
data sources to be used to streamline this reporting.
The roles and responsibilities in monitoring and evaluation of the main actors in policy
implementation are briefly presented below.
6.3.1 In Monitoring:
The various ministries, departments and agencies concerned with the indicative climate change
programmes detailed in the strategy are expected to report on a quarterly and semi-annual basis on
their progress in the implementation of their respective tasks and in the attainment of their
expected results under the climate change strategy. This information will be reported to the Ministry
of Finance Planning and Economic Development, and copied to the National Planning Authority and
the NCCC.
The National Climate Change Commsiion (NCCC) under the Ministry of Water and Environment
(MWE): The reporting from the various ministries, departments and agencies will be consolidated as
relevant at the national level by the NCCC. The NCCC will be tasked with preparing a consolidated
annual progress report on the overall implementation of the policy implementation strategy, for
consideration by the Cabinet and the Prime Minister’s Office. The NCCC will also be responsible for
the development of an overarching MRV system. The NCCC may provide guidance to the various
ministries, departments and agencies as they develop their PMFs and reporting formats, to ensure
consistency and focus on result-based management in the implementation of the policy.
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The Ministry of Local Government (MoLG) will review development plans and budgets of local
governments to ensure they mainstream climate change issues. It will in addition review relevant
reports from the local governments to ensure the quality of the reporting, and consolidate reporting
on district-level actions towards the implementation of the policy on a semi-annual basis. This
information will be reported to the Ministry of Finance, and copied to the National Planning
Authority and the NCCC.
The Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development (MoFPED) will also be responsible
for resource mobilization, formulation of national budgets, and disbursement of climate change
policy budgetary resources, financial accountability, and budget monitoring and reporting. It will also
review quarterly and semi-annual reports from the ministries, departments and agencies concerned,
to ensure that resource use is in line with expected and actual progress in implementing the policy.
The National Planning Authority (NPA) will be responsible for developing guidelines for
mainstreaming climate change into sectoral and local development pans and budgets. It will also
ensure that the climate change PMFs (result indicators) developed by relevant institutions of
Government (and relevant non-state actors) are consistent with the national development
objectives. NPA will review sectoral plans from ministries, departments and agencies to ensure they
mainstream climate change issues. It will in addition review quarterly and semi-annual reporting by
the institutions concerned in light of the work plans it approved for each lead agency.
Development Partners will support the M&E framework and in particular the development of a MRV
system by providing financial and technical assistance for: the operationalization of the M&E system;
the refinement of indicators, tools and processes; and the implementation of M&E activities,
capacity building for M&E, and use of M&E products.
Civil society and private sector organisations, through their representation on the multi-stakeholder
National Climate Change Advisory Committee, will also play a key role in the monitoring function.
This will be done, for instance, through their review of the consolidated progress reports to the
Committee on the implementation of the policy. Their representation on that Committee will also
provide a conduit for feedback from civil society and the private sector to present their own
evidence on the pace of progress of the implementation of the Climate Change Policy and their own
reporting on their actions towards the implementation of the Policy.
As outlined in the monitoring and evaluation matrix provided in Annex A, the various line and crosscutting
departments participate in on-going monitoring of the policy implementation. Due to the
importance of quality reports for the proposed M&E framework and the setting of appropriate
performance targets, particular attention should be paid to the equal application of criteria and
standards, as well as the comparable use of formats in reporting. To assume their roles, the various
M&E actors therefore need certain capacities, both in terms of human resources and technical
know-how. In addition, the NCCC, given its key role in consolidated reporting at the national level,
will require adequate capacity to perform this function effectively. Care should be taken, as part of
the early activities in operationalizing the institutional framework for the implementation of the
policy, to provide adequate resources for this monitoring function, in both the NCCC and the line and
cross-cutting ministries that have to report on their actions.
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6.3.2 In Evaluation:
The first independent evaluation is to take place in 2017 and should ideally be commissioned by the
National Climate Change Policy Committee (NCCPC). A steering committee under the NCCPC should
be set up to develop the terms of reference and to provide guidance to the independent evaluation
team contracted to conduct this evaluation. This steering committee should bring about a balanced
representation of the following groups of actors: various ministries, departments and agencies
involved in the implementation of the policy, donors supporting the policy implementation process,
civil society and private sector representatives involved in policy implementation. Ideally, this
steering committee should be chaired by a representative with strong credentials in evaluation.
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Annex A: Overall Monitoring and Evaluation Matrix
Key performance questions Methods, Sources Frequency Responsibility
Relevance of the Policy and its Priorities
To what extent is the policy still in line with the current
international negotiation context?
 Impact evaluation, reporting from
various programmes
 Every 5 years  Evaluation team
To what extent is the policy and its priorities in line with
the evolving national policy framework and priorities?
 Impact evaluation, reporting from
various programmes
 Every 5 years  Evaluation team
To what extent is the policy responding to the priority
needs of all main stakeholders groups when it comes to
climate change concerns and impacts?
 Impact evaluation, reporting from
various programmes
 Every 5 years  Evaluation team
Effectiveness – Policy Results Achievement
Outcome level
What has been the progress on the road map to
implementation and on setting up institutional delivery
mechanisms, and has it been according to the set
schedule in the Implementation Strategy in terms of the
following?
 Awareness raising and information gathering
organised and conducted with key decision making
and planning staff of sector actors in conjunction
with NCCC and focal points
 Building knowledge and capacity for climate change
budgeting, accounting and work planning
 Updating budgets and work plans to integrate the
climate change actions
 Developing a performance measurement framework
(PMF)
 Setting up and funding the institutional structure at
the national and local level for policy coordination
and implementation
 Conducting a communication needs assessment
 Reporting from NCCC and various
sectoral entities on status and
timelines
 Quarterly and semiannual
reporting
 NCCC and relevant
ministries, departments
and agencies
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Key performance questions Methods, Sources Frequency Responsibility
 Improving access to climate change information
 Disseminating credible and reliable climate change
information and research findings
 Developing a comprehensive communication plan
What has been the progress towards the expected
outcomes under the common policy priorities, as well as
the adaptation-, mitigation-, monitoring- and detectionspecific
policy priorities
 Desk review of reporting from
various programmes against their
PMFs
 Quarterly and semiannual
reporting
 Relevant ministries,
departments and agencies
 Desk review of reporting from
various programmes against their
PMFs
 Annual reporting  Consolidated reporting by
NCCC
 Interviews, desk reviews, focus
groups with beneficiaries, etc.
 Every 5 years  Evaluation Team
Output level
What has been the progress towards the expected
outputs under the common policy priorities, as well as
the adaptation-, mitigation-, monitoring- and detectionspecific
policy priorities?
 Desk review of reporting from
various programmes against their
PMFs
 Quarterly and semiannual
reporting
 Relevant ministries,
departments and agencies
 Desk review of reporting from
various programmes against their
PMFs
 Annual reporting  Consolidated reporting by
NCCC
 Interviews, desk reviews, focus
groups with beneficiaries, etc.
 Every 5 years  Evaluation team
Activity and Input level
Has progress in work plan implementation by the
different concerned stakeholders unfolded as planned?
 Desk review of reporting from
various programmes against their
PMFs and work plans
 Quarterly and semiannual
reporting
 Relevant ministries,
departments and agencies
Were the resources (human, technological and financial)
required for implementation mobilised as expected?
How did this affect result achievement?
Desk review of reporting from various
programmes against their PMFs, work
plans and budgets
 Annual reporting  Consolidated reporting by
NCCC
 Every 5 years  Evaluation team
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Key performance questions Methods, Sources Frequency Responsibility
Efficiency
Were resources used as planned? Were activities and
budgetary resources adequate to achieve the expected
outputs and policy outcomes
 Desk review of reporting from
various programmes against their
PMFs, work plans and budgets
 Quarterly and semiannual
reporting
 Relevant ministries,
departments and agencies
Could resources have been used in a more efficient
manner
 Desk review of reporting from
various programmes against their
PMFs, work plans and budgets
 Annual reporting  Consolidated reporting by
NCCC
Where the financial management tools, delivery
mechanisms and management structures used for the
implementation of the policy efficient and effective
 Interviews, desk reviews, focus
groups with key stakeholders, etc.
 Every 5 years  Evaluation team
Impacts
Has the policy achieved its expected impacts to date and
why?
 Impact evaluation methodologies,
desk review of reporting from
various programmes
 Every 5 years  Evaluation team
What are the unexpected impacts achieved to date?  Impact evaluation methodologies,
desk review of reporting from
various programmes
 Every 5 years  Evaluation team
Sustainability of Results
Are the Policy implementation results likely to be
sustained?
 Interviews, desk reviews, focus
groups with beneficiaries, etc.
 Every 5 years  Evaluation team
Are the key capacities to ensure scaling up and
mainstreaming of climate change issues into national
planning in place and effective in ensuring a sustainable
approach to tackling climate change concerns in Uganda
 Interviews, desk reviews, focus
groups with beneficiaries, etc.
 Every 5 years  Evaluation Team
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Annex B: Estimating Additional Costs for Addressing Climate Change
1. Methodology for estimating additional costs of adaptation
The estimates are based on the methods presented by World Bank (2006)6
and Stern Review (2006)7
.
Several other estimates of the costs of climate change adaptation in developing countries in the
literature have adopted this methodology. According to this methodology, the costs of climate proofing
range 2-10% of gross domestic investment (GDI)8
.
Thus we assume three scenarios i.e. the best scenario (2 %), medium scenario (5%) and worst scenario
(10%)
The model
  SPCAit
  SPDFit
Where;
 - Intensity parameter
it SPDF – Projected domestic funding for the sector I in the time period t
it SPCA - Projected costs of climate change for the sector i in the time period t
 
i
PCAt SPCAit
Where:-
PCAt
- Projected costs of climate change for the time period t
Where:
As a percentage of GDP:
 
i t
it
t GDP
SPCA EPCA

6 World Bank (2006), Investment Framework for Clean Energy and Development. World Bank, Washington, DC.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DEVCOMMINT/Documentation/20890696/DC2006-0002(E)-CleanEnergy.pdf
7
Stern, N. (2006), “The Economics of Climate Change”, The Stern Review, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
8
Brian Lipinski, Heather Mcgray (2010). Summary of studies estimating the costs of climate change adaptation in
Developing Word.
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- projected costs of climate change as proportion of GDP for the time period t.
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2. Methodology for estimating Costs of Mitigation
Studies on Africa, using Integrated Assessment models (IAMs) , such as the FUND and PAGE model,
estimate the mitigation costs to range between 1.5 -10% of annual GDP. It is also indicated that 10% is
too high for a sustainable economy9
:
MC GDP
Where
MC-mitigation costs
GDP- Gross Domestic Product
NGDP  GDP MC
Where
NGDP-net gross GDP( indicates the reduction in GDP due to mitigation costs)
MC
TRF
RFS MCS 
Where
MCS- mitigation costs per sector
RFS- resource funds per sector
TRF- total resource funds (sum of resource funds to the key identified sectors)

9
Stockholm Environment Institute (2009). Adapcost briefing paper. www.afdb.org/.../Africa.
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Annex C: Possible Engineering Adaptation Interventions
Please see separate document
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Annex D: Breakdown of Climate Change costs over the short to medium
term (5 years)
Please see separate document


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